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89 terms

BIO 314 Lab Final

How is the diameter of a microscope field of view determined?
Unknown diameter = (known magnification)(known diameter)/(unknown diameter magnification)
How is the size of an object in the field of view calculated?
(Diameter)(amount of field of view taken up by it)
If the object is small enough this could be converted to micrometers (1000 micrometers per millimetre)
What are some features of cyanobacteria?
These are bacteria with photosynthetic pigments that are associated with membranes to form thylakoids but these thylakoids are not bounded together inside membranes. They are gram negative prokaryotes that are mobile by gliding rather than by flagella.
What are the cyanobacteria pigments?
Chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and phycobillins, mostly phycocyanin and phycoerythrin.
How do cyanobacteria reproduce?
They reproduce strictly asexually through fragmentation, resistant spores, or baeocytes.
How does cyanobacteria store starch?
They store starch through cyanophycean starch which does not stain with iodine.
What are the cell types of cyanobacteria?
There are akinetes, heterocysts, and vegetative cells.
What are the growth forms of cyanobacteria?
They are able to grow as single cells, filaments, false branched filaments, true branched filaments, and gelatinous sheathes.
What is the human and environmental impact of cyanobacteria?
They can be used for human nutrition (Spirulina), toxic algae blooms, water filtration issues, and oxygenation.
What are Gloeocapsa?
These cyanobacteria have a gelatinous capsule that can be seen around cells and groups of cells. A negative stain will enhance the capsule. There is no cell specialization. These cells undergo binary fission in all regular and irregular planes.
What are Nostocales?
These are cyanobacteria filaments with division of cells in a perpendicular manner to the trichome axis. Heterocyst, akinetes, and homogonia are possible, all differing from vegetative cells. The trichomes may taper, potentially because of distance to the heterocyst. The granules seen within the cells are probably cyanophycin or lipid droplets.
Anabaena azollae in fern
This is symbiotic with this aquatic fern.
Anabaena trichomes
The heterocysts can be identified by a paler green color due to the limited photosynthesis they can perform.
Individual filaments are observed with individual sheaths.
What is oscillatoriales?
This is a cyanobacteria where cell division will only occur in one place and reproduction is by trichome fragmentation. It is hard to differentiate between individual cells. The short filaments are hormogonia, used for reproduction. Usually the trichomes should be polarized by taking one end and gradually tapering with a little knob.
What are pleurocapsales?
They reproduce by multiple fission and baeocytes.
What is Fischerella?
This displays true branching, the first branch growing longer than the majority of cells within the trichome.
What are dinoflagellates?
They are eukaryotic with photosynthetic pigments in complex, membrane bound containers (chloroplasts or plastids). The pigments includes chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, carotenoids and accessory phycobilins.There are other organelles to identify the interior and exterior. The cell membranes often secrete cellulose armour plates that can be ornate and have a number of features for finer identification. They store carbohydrates through starch. They will grow in solitary, colonial, or symbiotic forms. Dinoflagellates are found in marine and freshwater habitats.They will test positive with iodine black for starch.
How do dinoflagellates move?
They make use of two flagella, one that is transverse in a groove known as the cingulum and the other is trailing and marked by another grove known as the sulcus.
How do dinoflagellates reproduce?
They are able to undergo asexual fission, or sexual reproduce that varies by isogamy or heterogamy and can include resistant spores (cysts).
What are euglenophyta?
These are eukaryotic cells with photosynthetic pigments in complex, membrane bound containers. The pigments include chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids (xanthophylls) but some can be non photosynthetic heterotrophs.The cell wall is composed of pellicle made up of strips, this is flexible. They store carbohydrates by paramylon, a form of starch that doesn't turn black when exposed to iodine. They reproduce by asexual fission and are found in marine and freshwater habitats. They grow in solitary and stalked colonies.
What is the human and environmental impact of dinoflagellates?
They can cause toxic and harmful blooms but also have multiple ecological roles, including in coral reefs.
How do euglenophyta move?
They have two flagella, one longer than the other. The longer one moves the cell, while the other is not long enough to project outside the cell.
What are the specialized structures of euglenophyta?
These include the pellicle, paramylon granule morphology, and eyespot or stigma.
What is the human and environmental impact of euglenophyta?
They can cause toxic and harmful blooms, as well as have multiple ecological roles.
What are haptophyta?
They are a eukaryote with photosynthetic pigments in complex and membrane bounded containers. They have other organelles as well. They are able to move by two unequal flagella. They cell wall is made up of a flexible cell membrane with coccoliths and haptomena. They store carbohydrates by chysolaminarin. These cells are typically found growing in solitary. These are responsible for chalk deposits, carbon sequestering, and shellfish culture.
What are oomycota?
They are eukaryotic with many fungal similarities. These are often coenocytic. Only gametes are motile with two unequal flagella. The cell wall is made up of cellulose. They store carbohydrates through starch and glycogen. They contain oogonia and antheridia. They will grow in mycelia colonies of hyphal filaments. Reproduction is by asexual zoospores from zoo sporangia and sexual reproduction by oogonia being encircled and fertilized by antheridia. These are found in marine and freshwater habitats.
What is the human and environmental impact of oomycota?
They are decomposers and exploiters of vulnerable animals such as fish or fish eggs under stress. There are pathogenic members such as Plasmopara responsible for downy mildew of grapes, and Phytophthora responsible for the potato blight.
What are bacillariophyta?
These eukaryotic organisms with a two part frustule for the cell membrane made with silica is able to move only by flagella at the gamete stage and is heterokont. They store carbohydrates as oil or lipid and chrysolaminarin. These will grow in solitary or colonial, planktonic or benthic forms. Most surfaces in an aquatic or marine environment will have a coating with a large proportion of diatoms. They will asexually divide where each daughter cell keeps one frustule to secrete a new slightly smaller half. These create diatomaceous earth deposits used in abrasives and filter media.
Bacillariophyta life cycle
What are chrysophyta?
These are eukaryotic cells without a cell wall or one with cellulose. They have silicate scales to allow them to live in marine and freshwater habitats. Reproduction is either unknown or sexual. They contain chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and carotenoids (fucoxanthin). They have motility by heterokont fashion. They will grow in solitary, colonies, coenocytic siphons, or filaments. If in a colony they will have the flagella surround the colony. They store carbohydrates by oils or lipids, although heterotrophy is demonstrated by many species. They can have a negative impact on drink water supplies by affecting taste and odor.
What are Phaeophyta?
These are eukaryotic cells with a cell membrane reinforced by a cell wall contain chlorophyll a, c, and fucoxanthin. The cell wall is made up of cellulose fibres and alginate matrix. They have two unequal flagella (heterokont). They will store carbohydrates by laminarin and mannitol. These grow in encrusting colonies, filamentous branching, and plant like forms. They will asexually and sexually reproduce. These haploid organisms have oogonia to produce gametes by meiosis and fertilization produces diploid zygotes to form a new organism. These mostly live in marine environments. They have widespread ecological roles and are a critical habitat to support fishing.
Fucus life cycle
What is rhodophyte?
These are eukaryotic cells with photosynthetic pigments in chloroplasts or plastids along with other organelles. There is no motility. They contain chlorophyll a and phycobilin. The cell walls are a flexible cell membrane reinforced by a cell wall that is cellulose with agar or carrageenan. Carbohydrates are stored as floridan starch. They have pit plugs where cells do not completely divide. They will grow in solitary cells. Sexual and asexual reproduction occurs. These are found in marine and freshwater habitats. They are a source for a multitude of pharmaceutical, industrial, and food additives.
What is chlorophyta?
It is a eukaryote with a cell membrane and cell wall containing chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, and others as well. There are two equal flagella. The cell wall is made up of cellulose fibres and pectin. Carbohydrates are stored by starch that turns black when stained with Lugol's. They will grow in encrusted colonies, filamentous branching, and plant like thalli. Asexual and sexual reproduction occur, often with alternation of generations. There is a diverse range of habitats. They have widespread ecological roles and critical habitat that supports fishing.
What is myxomycota?
It is a eukaryotic organism with swarm cells that are flagellated with plasmodiale stages that flow across surfaces. There is no cell wall but spores are reinforced with cellulose. They will grow in an amoeboid form that has a multinucleated mass of cytoplasm and stalked sporangia. They will reproduce by asexual fission and sexual fusion of flagellated swarm cells. They will live in moist environments such as leaf litter, as they are decomposers.
What is a fungi?
It is an absorptive heterotroph that stores food reserves as glycogen. These cells are usually organized into hyphae filaments. These hyphae may be coenocyte or septate. The hyphae are organized into mycelium. Their cell walls use chitin. These can also exist as single celled and pseudohyphae. The fruiting bodies dispense spores. These spores are asexual.
What is sexual reproduction in fungi?
This often proceed with fusion of cells (plasmogamy). This is different than nuclear fusion (karyogamy). Many hyphae exist as dikaryons.
What is Melzer's reagent?
The addition of this reagent to basidiomycota (mushrooms) spores indicates either dextrinoid spores if it turns brown, amyloid spores if it turns black, or inamyloid spores if no color change.
What are the major forms of lichen shape?
What are some tests that can help with identification of lichen?
The outer cortex must be sliced away to do these tests.
C or calcium hypochlorite, K or potassium hydroxide, KC (K followed by C), PD or paraphenylenediamine solution. For all tests is a color change occurs this is a positive reaction, and if no change this is negative.
What are Chytridiomycota?
These are saprobic, pathogenic, and parasitic. They are nonseptate and often hyphae but can sometimes be single celled dispersed in soil or water. They will reproduce by alternation of generations.
How do Chytridiomycota reproduce?
The 2N sporophyte produces zoosporangia, and resistant sporangia, 1N gametophyte produces male and female gametangia that both release motile, uniflagellated gametes but the females is larger than the males.
Chytridiomycota life cycle
Chytridomycota Allomyces
What is zygomycota?
These are typically saprobic, nonseptate and typically hyphal forming mycelial mats covered in conidiospores.
How do zygomycota reproduce?
They have sexual and asexual reproduction. 1N asexual spores are produced on sporangiophores and will produce the same strain as the parent. Sexual spores are released after the opposite strain produce gametangia and undergo plasmogamy to produce a zygosporangium inside where karyogamy occurs. The zygospore germinates and meiotically produces spore.
Zygomycota life cycle
What is ascomycota?
These are typically saprobic but are symbiotic in lichen. These are usually septate, hyphal, and can be single celled in the form of yeasts. There are others that produce large fruiting bodies (ascocarps). There is sexual and asexual reproduction. 1N spores (ascospores) produced by the ascocarp following meiosis. The conidiospores are produced by mitosis from the hyphal tips.
What are basidiomycota?
They are saprobic but can also be symbiotic and can occasionally be seen as lichens. These can be septate then dikaryotic hyphal organisms but these produce dense mycelium in the fruiting bodies (basidiocars). The dikaryotic condition dominates. A unique feature is their clamp connections. There is sexual and asexual reproduction. Asexual spores can occur. Mushrooms are able to produce when two strains have come together. 1N basidiospores are produced by meiosis on the basidia that line a mushroom's gills.
What are Deuteromycota?
These are saprobic and pathogenic fungi that are hypal and mycelial but always septetate. There is only asexual reproduction. These spores are produced at the tip of the condiophore. This group was created for fungi that a sexual phase could not be identified on.
What are lichens?
They have lifecycle similar to ascomycetes but are very important in succession and nutrient cycling. These are often significant members of communities in harsh habitats such as deserts, and cold and dry environments. These all require symbiosis.
What is mycorrhizae?
These are ecto and endomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrrhizae fungi have hyphae surrounding the cells, and endmycorrhizae have hyphae inside the root cells.
What is species diversity?
It is the species count in an environment, or richness. The relative abundance is also important. The more evenly a species is represented the higher the heterogeneity. More species in an environment tend to be in a more stable arrangement.
What is the shannon index?
It is the measurement of richness and equitability. The closer this gets to 1 the greater the diversity.
H' = ∑(π(pi) x log(pi))
pi represents the fraction of the total contributed by each species, percent cover divided by the total percent cover for all species.
Average Diversity
Shannon index/total number of samples
Average species richness
Average number of species per sample
Average diversity max
log(average species richness)
J' or evenness
Average diversity/average diversity max
This is a ratio of measured average diversity against max theoretical diversity.
Vascular bog plants
Nonvascular bog plants
Rhodophyte macroalgae
Bull Kelp
Sugar Kelp
Melanosiphon intestinalis
Palmer Index
Clean water indicators in palmer index
High nutrient indicators in palmer index