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46 terms

Module 09: Alterations of Hormonal Regulatione

Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH) results in excessive
renal retention of water without sodium retention
Neurological symptoms of SIADH are related to
decreased serum sodium concentrations
Which of the following is a serious complication of SIADH
Permanent neurological damage
Damage to the posterior pituitary caused by a cerebrovascular accident (stroke) results in _____ diabetes insipidus (DI)
Classic symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI) include all of the following except
In adults, the most serious consequence of panhypopituitarism is the loss of
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Acromegaly is caused by increased secretion of
growth hormone
Prolactinomas (pituitary tumors that secrete prolactin) cause which of the following problems in women
Breast milk production without pregnancy
A clinician would suspect thyrotoxicosis if a patient presented with which symptoms
Weight loss and enlarged thyroid gland
Graves disease is characterized by
excessive production of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin
Graves disease is an example of a
type II hypersensitivity
In Graves disease, accumulation of edema in the orbit can lead to
AOTB :optic nerve damage, eye muscle palsies,exophthalmos
When evaluating the kidney function of an individual with diabetes insipidus (DI), the nurse would observe?
high volume urine output
What is the cause of exophthalmos in Graves disease
Degenerative changes in the muscle and orbital edema
The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in Graves disease is
The physiologic stress of illness or surgery can induce a severe response in individuals who have unrecognized and untreated thyrotoxicosisThe pathophysiology of thyroid storm, also known as thyrotoxic crisis, involves
fever and tachycardia leading to high-output heart failure
An endocrinologist orders a series of lab tests to assess thyroid functionLow levels of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) and high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are indicative of
primary hypothyroidism
If left untreated, congenital hypothyroidism results in
mental retardation and stunted growth
Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include all of the following
Diarrhea (weight gain, myxedema, lethargy)
The most common cause of primary hypothyroidism in adults is?
autoimmune thyroiditis
Which of the thyroid disorders can be caused by exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation
Thyroid cancer
Causes of myxedema coma include
untreated hypothyroidism
Thyroid carcinoma usually presents with what thyroid tissue changes
small nodules
Chronic hyperparathyroidism will lead to all of the following conditions excepts
weight loss
Which disorders can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism
Chronic renal failure
The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is
parathyroid gland injury or removal
One problem associated with untreated hypoparathyroidism is
muscle spasms
The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) involves
AOTA: autoimmune destruction of pancreaticbeta cells,production of antibodies against insulin,type IV hypersensitivity against pancreatic islet cells
A new diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is based on
fasting plasma glucose levels and glucose tolerance tests
Hyperglycemia and lipid abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are a result of
insulin resistance
Signs and symptoms common to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) include all of the following except
weight loss( polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria)
Signs and symptoms that a person with type 1 diabetes has administered too much insulin include
dizziness and confusion
Gestational diabetes can occur
during pregnancy
The purpose of monitoring glycosylated hemoglobin levels in persons with diabetes is to
monitor long-term serum glucose control
The symptom of polyuria in diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by
increased glucose in the urine
What effect does the presence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) have in diabetes
Tissue injury
The development of an acute metabolic acidosis from insulin deficiency is due to which processes
Fatty acid metabolism with ketone production
Alterations in lipid and protein metabolism lead to chronic complications of DM through which processes
AOTA: Activation of protein kinase C,Glycosylation, Induction of the polyol pathway
Chronic complications of DM include the following
AOTA: Peripheral neuropathies End-stage renal disease Coronary artery disease
Cushing disease is commonly caused by
ectopic production of ACTH from a lung tumor
Which alterations would you expect to find in a patient with untreated Cushing disease or syndrome
Truncal obesity
Which of the following problems arises from primary hyperaldosteronism
Metabolic abnormalities in Addison disease include all of the following except
The most common cause of Addison disease is
autoimmune injury to the adrenal cortex
Mental status changes in people with Addison disease are caused by
Hypersecretion of androgens from an adrenal tumor in female children causes virilization, which is
the development of male sex characteristics