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AP World History Chapter 9
Terms in this set (33)
Chandragupta's grandson, best known emperor of Mauryan dynasty, reigned 268-232 B.C.E.; conquered the kingdom of Kalinga through a bloody campaign in 260 B.C.E. Converted to Buddhism and sponsored the new religion throughout his empire. His rule represented the highest point of the Mauryan empire in terms of territory and central administration.
Founder of the Gupta empire who rose to power in Magadha about 320 C.E. (Note: He was not related to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of Mauryan empire)
King of the state of Magadha and founder of the Mauryan empire. Rose to power in north India after Alexander's army withdrew from the region. Tradition holds that he abdicated his throne for an existence so ascetic that he starved himself to death.
Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled widely in India searching for texts of the Buddhist scriptures during the reign of Chandra Gupta II (reigned 375-415 C.E.). His accounts left valuable records for the reconstruction of Indian history.
Advisor or minister of Chandragupta's government who devised administrative procedures and diplomatic strategies for the Mauryan empire. Some of his advice and ideas survived in the political handbook known as the Arthashastra.
Greek ambassador who lived in India during late 4th and early 3rd centuries B.C.E. Wrote a book, Indika, which portrayed India as a wealthy land that supported a distinctive society with well-established cultural traditions.
Founder of Buddhism; born to a kshatriya family about 563 B.C.E.; sought enlightenment through intense meditation and extreme asceticism, and received enlightenment under a bo tree; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for all earthly things.
The great teacher of Jainism, born in northern India about 540 B.C.E. to a prominent kshatriya family; taught an ascetic doctrine of detachment from the world and formed a monastic order to perpetuate and spread his message. His disciples referred to him as Jina, "the conqueror," and referred to themselves as Jains.
Jainist principle, meaning nonviolence toward other living things or their souls. To observe this principle, devout Jainist monks went to extremes to avoid harming the millions of souls they encountered each day.
Political handbook containing Kautalya's and others' advice to the Gupta dynasty regarding principles of government. It outlined methods of administering the empire, overseeing trade and agriculture, collecting taxes, maintaining order, conducting foreign relations, waging war, and obtaining information through spies.
"Song of the Lord," a short poetic work of India, also an episode of the Mahabharata. The work contained a dialogue between a warrior and the god Vishnu, which clearly illustrated both the expectations and promise of Hinduism for its believers.
"The enlightened being," a Buddhist concept referring to individuals who had reached spiritual perfection and merited the reward of nirvana but who intentionally delayed their entry into nirvana in order to help others who were still struggling; a notion articulated by Mahayana Buddhist theologians between the 3rd and 1st century C.E.
One of the holy sites of Buddhism, a place where Gautama received enlightenment under a bo tree.
"The enlightened one," a title referring to Siddhartha Gautama, the creator of Buddhism.
One of the world religions originating in India during the 6th century B.C.E.; founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha. Its fundamental doctrine was based on the Four Noble Truths taught by the Buddha. The religious goal was to achieve personal salvation called nirvana, a state of perfect spiritual independence. To achieve this goal, Buddhism stressed reducing desires for material goods and other worldly attractions.
Anti-religious sect of classical India which believed in atheistic materialism: The gods were figments of the imagination, brahmins were charlatans who enriched themselves by hoodwinking others, and human beings came from dust and returned to dust like any other animal in the natural world. This sect did not achieve long-lasting popularity.
Deer Park of Sarnath
One of the Buddhist holy sites where Buddha preached his first sermon in 528 B.C.E.
Basic doctrine shared by Buddhists of all sects, including the teachings of the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path.
The second Indian empire, founded by the Gupta family during the 4th century C.E. Extended to all but the southern regions of the Indian subcontinent. Less centralized than Mauryan empire.
Pejorative term for Theravada Buddhism; literally meant "the lesser vehicle," so called because of its strict adherence to the original Buddha's teachings and monastic life, which, by the later Mahayana standard, could only carry a few monks to salvation. In later centuries, Theravada Buddhism became popular in Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, and other parts of southeast Asia.
Most popular religion of salvation in India, drawing inspiration from the Vedas and Upanishads. Basic teachings included the four principal aims of human life: obedience to religious and moral laws (dharma); the pursuit of economic well-being and honest prosperity (artha); the enjoyment of social, physical, and sexual pleasure (kama); and the salvation of the soul (moksha).
One of the most influential Indian religions; became popular beginning in the late 5th century B.C. Taught that everything possessed a soul and the practice of nonviolence toward other living things or their souls. Represented an alternative to the traditional cults of brahmins.
Indian kingdom located in the east-central part of the subcontinent (modern Orissa). Maintained hostility toward the Mauryan empire while controlling several principal trade routes of India. Lost its independence to emperor Ashoka Maurya after a bloody war in 260 B.C.E.
Regional kingdom of India, located in the central portion of the Ganges plain. It developed into the Mauryan empire in 321 B.C.E.
Mahabharata and Ramayana
Two great Indian epics. Originally these were secular tales transmitted orally during the late years of the Vedic age (1500-500 B.C.E.). The Mahabharata dealt with a massive war over control of northern India between two groups of cousins; the Ramayana was originally a love and adventure story involving the trials faced by the legendary Prince Rama and his loyal wife Sita. Revised later by brahmin scholars to bear Hindu values.
One of two major subdividing trends in Buddhist belief. Believers in the Mahayana tradition shared with other Buddhists certain basic concepts in Buddhist doctrine, but articulated the notion of the boddhisatva, individuals who intentionally delayed their entry into nirvana to help others struggling to get there. Theologians in this tradition began to teach that boddhisatvas could perform good deeds on behalf of others, thus opening up the possibility of salvation to the masses. Mahayana literally meant "the greater vehicle," so called because it could carry more people to salvation. In later centuries, Mahayana Buddhism also became established in central Asia, China, Korea, and Japan.
First Indian empire, representing a temporary unification of India, lasting from 321 to 185 B.C.E.; unified almost the entire Indian subcontinent except the southernmost region.
Famous Buddhist monastery, founded during the Gupta dynasty in the Ganges River valley near Pataliputra. The monastery was an educational center which attracted many pilgrims and students from foreign lands to study with the most renowned masters of Buddhist doctrine.
Religious goal of Buddhism, a state of perfect spiritual independence, an escape from the cycle of incarnation.
Capital for both Mauryan and Gupta empires, the fortified city near modern Patina.
Shrines housing relics of the Buddha and his first disciples; became the objects of pilgrim worship of Buddhists.
"Turning of the Wheel of the Law"
A term used by early Buddhists to refer to the first sermon by the Buddha at the Deer Park of Sarnath about 528 B.C.E., so called because the sermon represented the beginning of the Buddha's quest to promulgate the law of righteousness.
Nomadic people from central Asia, a branch of the Xiongnu; occupied Bactria during the fourth century C.E. and crossed the Hindu Kush mountains into India. Their invasions of India seriously weakened the Gupta empire.
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