Terms in this set (90)
Define social contract.
An agreement among people in a society with their government.
What Enlightenment Thinker felt that people were born with certain natural rights. He also believed in a social contract, but felt that if the government broke this contract, the people had the right to choose new leaders.
What Enlightenment Thinker came up with the idea that government powers should be divided so that no one group/person becomes too powerful. (separation of powers)
Baron de Montesquieu
After an uprising in England, the country's nobles forced the King to sign a document called the Magna Carta. What was the main purpose of this document?
to limit the King's power.
What did the Magna Carta specifically do?
1-It forbade the King from placing certain taxes on the nobles without their consent.
2-It gave right to free men
3-free men were now allowed equal treatment under the law
4-free men were allowed a trial by one's peers
5-it gave noble men the right to rebel if the king did not follow these rules
Why is the Magna Carta important?
it created limited government
Define limited government.
the principle that a ruler or a government is not all powerful
After an overthrow of the English government, the people/Parliament forced the new monarchs to agree to a new set of laws. What were these laws/document called?
The English Bill of Rights.
What are the eight points of the English Bill of Rights?
1- no imprisonment without due process of law
2- no loss of property without due process of law
3- no cruel punishment
4- no standing army in time of peace without Parliament's consent
5- no taxation without Parliament's consent
6- people have the right to bear arms
7- people have the right to petition the king
8- freedom of speech in Parliament
How did the English Bill of Rights influence our Founding Fathers?
The English Bill of Rights has been incorporated into the Constitution of the United States
The new colonists from the Mayflower knew that they needed a form of government in order to survive this new uncharted land. They decided that they would choose a leader and work together to create/obey their own laws for the colony. What was this document called?
The Mayflower Compact
What type of government did the signers of the Mayflower Compact create? It was the first one of its kind in this new land.
Who wrote the pamphlet "Common Sense"?
What was the main idea of "Common Sense"?
Paine argued that it was "common sense" that the colonists rebel against the king's "violent abuse of power".
How did "Common Sense" influence our Founding Fathers?
It motivated more than half the members of the Continental Congress to vote in favor of independence from Great Britain, England, and to move forward with a Declaration of Independence.
Why did colonists begin to resent British citizens?
Because the colonists felt that the British citizens had more rights compared to them. The British colonists also felt that their government put British interests ahead of their own.
Why did the colonists have such a little voice in British government?
Because they were so far away. Out of sight out of mind.
Who fought in the French and Indian War?
The French/Native Americans vs. the British
Why was the French and Indian War fought?
Because the colonists were running out of room and started to expand westward. The land that they moved onto belonged to the French.
Why did the Native American's fight in the French and Indian war with the French?
Because they were upset that the British took away their land and their direct connection to the Atlantic Ocean.
The King was mad at the colonists for making him fight a war that he did not want to fight. How did the King react towards the colonists?
He decided that he was going to punish them for making him spend money on an unnecessary war.
How did the King punish the colonists?
He taxes the colonies to raise money to pay back his debt, this tax was called the Stamp Act
Explain the Stamp Act.
The law required that the colonists buy and place tax stamps on many kinds of documents, from legal papers to newspapers-even playing cards.
What was the colonists reaction to the Stamp Act?
They boycotted, or refused to buy, all British goods. They said that it went against the English Bill of Rights.
How did the King react to the colonist's boycott?
He repealed, or canceled, the Stamp Act.
In still trying to punish the colonists, the King put into place a new set of Acts that were later almost all repealed. What were they?
The Townshend Acts
Explain the Townshend Acts.
Acts on the colonists that taxed on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea.
How was the colonists' hate for writs of assistance used in the United States constitution? (This document was not created until much later.)
Our Founding Fathers added to the constitution that there can not be any "unreasonable searches and seizures" on American citizens.
Explain the Tea Act.
(not a tax) This Act allowed a British company that grew tea in India to import its tea into the colonies without paying the existing tea tax. This made the British company's tea cheaper than other tea sold in the colonies and thus forced the colonists to buy/give money to the King.
What was the colonist's reaction to the Tea Act?
the infamous/famous Boston Tea Party
Explain the Boston Tea Party.
This was a reaction to the Tea Act. During the night some angry colonists, dressed as Native Americans, boarded British ships carrying tea, and dumped 342 chest of tea into Boston Harbor.
What was Parliament/the King's response to the Boston Tea Party?
The Coercive Acts
What did the colonists call the Coercive Acts?
the Intolerable Acts
Explain the Coercive/Intolerable Acts.
These laws were meant to punish Massachusetts, especially Boston, for resisting British rule. These laws clearly went against the English Bill of Rights.
Why were the English Bill of Rights so important to the colonists?
They were the guiding rules set between Parliament/the King and the colonists.
What did the colonists create in reaction to the Coercive/Intolerable Acts?
the First Continental Congress
What was the purpose of the First Continental Congress?
The delegates discussed what to do about the colonies' issues with Great Britain. (The Parliament/King)
What was the conclusion that the delegates of the First Continental Congress came up with?
They decided to send a letter to the King that asked that Britain respect the colonists' rights as British citizens.They also decided boycott all British goods until conditions improved.
What was King George's response to the First Continental Congress?
"The New England governments are in a state of rebellion. Blows (a fight) must decide whether they are subject to this country or independent." (He is challenging the colonies to war.)
Once the King challenged the colonies to fight for their independence, the Congress met again, what was it called this time?
The Second Continental Congress
As fighting started, the second continental congress had to decide for peace or a split with Great Britain. Was this decision unanimous? Why?
No, some delegates were still loyal to the King and others wanted independence but didn't feel that they could beat the most powerful country in the world at the time.
What was Thomas Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense about?
It was based off of the ideas of John Locke. It stated that "common sense" called for the colonists to rebel against the King's "violent abuse of power".
The second continental congress was finally ready to make their decision regarding Great Britain and they drafted, or wrote, a very important document. What was this document called?
The Declaration of Independence
Who penned, or wrote, the Declaration of Independence?
The Declaration of Independence is not our governing document that we use today in the United States. The Declaration is actually a list of what?
proof of how the King had broken the social contract, or English Bill of Rights, and a long list of ways in which King George had abused his power over the colonies.
What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence?
To declare independence from Great Britain.
Who was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence?
John Hancock, the President of the Second Continental Congress
an official agreement made by two or more parties
the idea that people have the right to fair and reasonable laws, and that government leaders and officials have to follow rules when enforcing laws and treat all people in the same way
a government that has been limited in power by a constitution, or written agreement
a system of government in which the king or queen shares authority with an elected legislature and agrees to be bound by a constitution or a set of laws, also known as a constitutional monarchy
a government document that limited the power of the king of England and protected the rights of the nobility; written by the English nobles in 1215
an agreement between individuals that created a government that would provide order and protect the rights of the colonists; written by a group of English Puritans in Massachusetts in 1620
a set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions
rule of law
a concept that those who govern are bound by the laws; no one is above the law
popular or representative system where the people create and run their own government
having an effect or impact on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc., of another or others
laws passed by government to protect natural rights
separation of powers
the structure of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that sets up three branches with their own distinct powers and responsibilities
an implied agreement among the people of an organized society that defines the rights, duties, and limitations of the governed and the government
representatives from each of the 13 colonies who decided to meet and write a document stating their reasons for separation and independence from England
consent of the governed
an agreement made by the people to establish a government and abide by its laws
the belief that individuals are born with basic rights that cannot be taken away by governments
a government in which a single ruler possesses and abuses absolute power
basic rights of the people that may not be taken away
Declaration of Independence
a document written in 1776 that listed the basis for democratic government and the grievances of the colonists
Which English document limited power of the monarchy, made its citizens have a trial by jury, eliminated the power to make unjust taxes, and established rule of law?
What is the name of the legislative branch in England?
What was the name of the tax that was placed on all printed colonial paper?
What was the name of the tax that forced colonists to supply basic needs of British soldiers and house them?
Which act forced colonist to buy tea only from the British East Indian Company?
As a result of the Tea Act, the Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians and threw tea overboard. What was this event called?
The Boston Tea Party
What document officially ended the relationship between the colonists and the King?
The Declaration of Independence
When Thomas Jefferson wrote, Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness, he was inspired by who?
What are taxes?
A contribution for the support of a government required of persons, groups, or businesses within the domain of that government.
What is a government of a country by its own people?
Explain what the phrase, "No Taxation without Representation" means.
Since the colonists had no representation in the British Parliament, they felt they should not have to pay taxes.
What does the word boycott mean?
Refusing the buy goods
How did the colonist get the King to get rid of the Stamp Act?
What happened at the First Continental Congress?
The delegates write a letter to the King explaining their concerns about the taxes, and how they are being mistreated.
What happened at the Second Continental Congress?
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
What was the first battle of the American Revolution?
Lexington and Concord
According the Thomas Jefferson, the people have the right to alter or abolish the government when....?
The government violates your natural rights
What are John Locke's natural rights?
Life, Liberty, and Property
Put the events in correct sequence of order.
1. The Declaration of Independence is issued.
2. British Parliament passes Tea Act.
3. Boston Tea Party staged to protest British policies.
4. First battles of the American Revolution are fought.
2, 3, 4, 1
Magna Carta Ideas Taken in the DOI
1. Limited Government
2. Trial By Jury
3. King cannot put unjust taxes
4. Citizens have the right to rebel if king is being unjust (Social Contract)
5. Rule of Law
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