103 terms

PSYCH 335 Test 2

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Optimality theory
behavior that maximizes benefits and minimizes costs.
Game Theory
outcome of event depends on the actions of others.
Crypsis
avoiding detection
Examples of Crypsis
being nocturnal, sitting still, slow movement, habitat selection, camouflage, changing color
Difficult to catch
size matters
Speed and maneuverability
being fast and flexible helps avoid predation
arms race
A series of reciprocal adaptations between species involved in antagonistic interactions, in which adaptations that increase the fitness of a consumer species exert selection pressure on its resource species to counter the consumer's adaptation, and vice versa
coevolution
The evolution of two or more species that is due to mutual influence, often in a way that makes the relationship more mutually beneficial
automimicry
attack the wrong end
startle display
eye spots, loud noises, look bigger
look like a bad catch
toxins, noxious agents
Mullerian Mimicry
poisonous animals resemble each other. benefit from shared warning.
Batesian Mimicry
nonpoisonous animal resembles a poisonous or unpalatable animal
Batesian Mimics must
be rarer than the poisonous animal
attack deterrent
honest signals or strength (unprofitably)
Examples of deception
crypsis, automimicry, batesian mimicry
group living benefits
predator detection, dilution effect, confusion effect, mobbing
dilution effect
the more individuals in your group the less of a chance there is of being eaten because the predator eats someone else
Confusion effect
predator has difficulty tracking a single prey among the chaos
Odd Prey effect
unusual looking prey in a group more likely to be captured
Mobbing
group attack on predators
Selfish Herd
game theory of group living. the ess is to be social.
Generalists
can feed on many food items
Specialists
focus on one or very few food items
Optimal foraging theory
maximize energy intake per unit time (cal/min)
prey models
consider how an organism should behave when there are different types of prey available
patch models
consider how an organism should feed when resources are located in discrete clumps (areas)
marginal value theorem
predicts the length of time an individual should stay in a resource patch b4 leaving and seeking another.
constraints on optimal foraging
lack of information, predation, risk
producer-srounger game
results in frequency dependent selection
frequency dependent selection
occurs when the fitness of a phenotype is a function of that phenotype's frequency in the population. Over time, the population will approach equilibrium.
Conditional strategy
in some cases, an individual can flexibly adopt different strategies during its lifespan.
Passive Communication
groups as information centers
active communication
in some highly social animals, the ability to inform others about food location has evovled.
ideal free distribution
distribution of animals should be proportional to resource availability.
Home Range
the area in which an animal normally moves
Territory
the area in which an animal normally moves in which its borders are ACTIVELY DEFENDED and others are excluded.
Dispersal
short distance movements- occur once (or a few times) in a lifetime and are time to life history
Migration
annual, covers distances that are far greater than home range size and can be extremely costly.
Phototaxis
movement in response to light
Geotaxis
response of an organism to gravity
Compass Sense
The sense of direction an animal requires to travel in a straight line toward a destination.
Map sense
The ability to sense whether a certain location is north, south, east, or west of another distant location is called:
Monogamy
1 male, 1 female
Polygyny
1 male, more than 1 female
Polyandry
more than 1 male, 1 female
Polgynandry
more than one male and more than one female
Males provide parental care when
females dedicate all resources to egg production, offspring are extremely "valuable"
Distribution of Females (Dunnock)
resources->females->mating system
High food density
polygyny
Medium food density
monogamy
low food density
polyandry
female defense polygyny
clusters; males defend females and compete for them
resource defense polygyny
male defends territory that contains resources attractive to females
scramble competition polygyny
males competing with each other to get to females that are widely distributed (ex- frogs all jumping on female frog to mate)
lek polygyny
"arena mating". Make mini territories and show up at the display ground and wait for females to come to them. Only a few males are successful in a Lek.
Polygyny threshold model
If differences in territory quality among males are large enough, a female may raise more young by sharing a good territory with another female than by mating monogamously iwth a male on a poor territory. A = cost of polygyny - how much fitness is reduced by mating as a secondary female vs a poor territory. B = minimum difference in territory quality necessary for polygyn to be beneficial to females. C= observed diffeence in territory quality.
Hotspot Hypothesis
males cluster because females are found in certain areas
Hotshot hypothesis
females are attracted to the best males
Female preference
females are only attracted to group to displaying males
Mate assistance hypothesis
male parental care essential and increased survival of young
outweighs extra young gained by seeking extra mate
mate guarding hypothesis
Monogamy may be best choice if female would mate again if
male didn't stay close and if 2nd male would fertilize eggs
female enforcement hypothesis
females actively prevent their mate from mating with other females
mutual interest hypothesis
both high quality
Fertility insurance hypothesis
mating with many to ensure females eggs are fertilized
Good genes hypothesis
suggests that if a trait is related to male health, both the male trait and female preference for that trait should be selected for.
Genetic Compatibility Hypothesis
mating with several males increases the genetic variety of the sperm available to the female, increasing the chance that some sperm will have DNA that is an especially good match with the DNA of her eggs
More resources hypothesis
more mates mean more resources or parental care
Better Production hypothesis
more mates mean more time with protectors
Infanticide reduction hypothesis
more males means greater confusion of paternity
Costs of polyandry
time, energy, losing parental care, STDs
Can either have
more lower quality offspring, have fewer higher quality offspring
r selected species
reproductive rate, unstable environments, cheap offspring, little parental care
k selected species
survival of offspring, stable environment, few expensive offspring, lots of care
Parental investment
expenditure in offspring that reduces future reproduction
Operational Sex Ratio
ratio of sexually receptive males to females
Reproductive Skew
some animals (within a sex) will have more offspring than others.
Sex role reversal
caused by a reversed operational sex ratio
High adult mortaility
means higher parental investment
Low adult mortality
means lower parental investment
Offspring recognition
similar to kin recognition in general. maternal recognition greater when it is needed. usually olfactory or vocal but an be visual.
Brood parasites
mimic the host species to increase the likelihood that the host species will provide care
Mafia hypothesis
ejecting eggs might lead to predation by parasite mother
Parent-offspring conflict
The conflict that arises when offspring try to obtain more resources from a parent than it is optimal for the parent to give.
Siblicide
killing of an offspring by another offspring of the same parents
Reproductive value
life contribution to survive and produce and offspring
Sexual Selection
the advantage which certain individual have over others of the same sex and species, in exclusive relation to reproduction.
intra-sexual selection
competition for mates
inter-sexual selection
mater choice
Hawk-dove game
if benefit is greater than the cost of winning than Hawk (fighting) is the ESS
Fights usually happen between
evenly matched opponents
indirect competition
compete for territories
direct competition
compete for access to females
Sperm Competition
competition between the sperm from two or more males fo fertilize the eggs of a signle female during one reproductive cycle.
Mate guarding
a behavior displayed by an individual that reduces the opportunity for that individual's mate to interact with other potential mates. favored when unguarded females will mate again, last male to mate fathers more offspring, males little chance of finding another mate
Ornaments
used to help attract mates
Nuptial Gifts
A gift of food or other fitness enchancing product, typically from the male, that is delivered orally or into the females genital tract
e.g. costly paternal care or beneficial substances given by male to female which are eaten or absorbed from the ejaculate
-> prey items are proferred by the males in certain spp. of birds, spiders, dance flies, and scorpionflies
Good Parent theory
an explanation for female preferences for males whose appearance or behavior signals that these potential mates are likely to provide above-average parental care for their offspring
Healthy male theory
females choose males who appear more healthy.
Good genes theory
the argument that mate choice advances individual fitness because it provides the offspring of choosy individuals with genes that promote reproductive success by advancing the offspring's changes of survival or reproductive success
Runaway selection
when a trait becomes reinforced generation after generation until it is greatly exaggerated and a burden (Irish Elk antlers)
Chase-away selection
-Males happen to have a mutation for a novel display trait that manages to tap into pre-existing sensory bias that affects female mate preference in his species; males might induce females to mate with them even though they might not provide the material or genetic benefits offered by other males over time would create a selection on females favoring those that were psychologically resistant to purely attractive displays trait`
Sexual Conflict
conflict b/w the sexes over decisions that differentially affect their fitness, such as how much to invest in offspring and whether or not to mate