AP Environmental Chapter 10

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Terms in this set (...)

Tragedy of the commons
the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain
Externalities
a cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service
Maximum Sustainable Yield
The maximum amount of a renewable resource that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource: in theory a population growth is at max rate when at about half the carrying capacity
National Park
National parks are managed for scientific, educational, and recreational use, and sometimes for their beauty or unique landforms:2.7% of earth's land area
Managed Resource Protected Area
This classification allows for the sustained use of biological, mineral, and recreational resources
Habitat/Species Management Area
These areas are actively managed to maintain biological communities, for example with fire prevention or predator control
Strict Nature Reserves and Wilderness Area
These areas are established to protect species and ecosystems
Protected Landscapes and Seascapes
These areas combine the nondestructive use of natural resources with opportunities for tourism and recreation
National Monument
These areas are set aside to protect unique sites of special natural or cultural interest
Resource Conservation Ethic
The belief that people should maximize use of resources, based on the greatest good for everyone
Multiple-use Lands
A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction
BLM
Bureau of Land Management:grazing, mining, timber harvesting, and recreation
NPS
National Park Service:recreation and conservation
USFS
United States Forest Service:timber harvesting, grazing, and recreation
FWS
Fish and Wildlife Service:wildlife conservation, hunting, and recreation
Rangelands
dry, open grasslands used primarily for cattle grazing
Forests
dominated by trees and other woody vegetation
Clear-Cutting
A method of harvesting trees that involves removing all or almost all of the trees within an area
Selective Cutting
The method of harvesting trees that involves the removal of single trees or a relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest
Ecologically Sustainable Forestry
An approach to removing trees from forests in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other trees
Tree Plantation
A large area typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species
Prescribed Burn
A fire deliberately set under controlled conditions in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on a forest floor
National Wildlife Refuge
A federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife
National Wilderness Area
An area set aside with the intent of preserving a large tract of intact ecosystem or a landscape
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
A document outlining the scope and purpose of a development project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative
Environmental Mitigation Plan
A plan that outlines how a developer will address concerns raised by a project's impact on the environment
Endangered Species Act
A 1973 U.S. act that implements CITES, designed to protect species from extinction
Suburban
An area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population density
Exurban
An area similar to a suburb, but unconnected to any central city or densely populated area
Urban Sprawl
Urbanized areas that spread into rural areas, removing clear boundaries between the two
Urban Blight
The degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs
Highway Trust Fund
A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways
Induced Demand
The phenomenon in which increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow
Zoning
A planning tool used to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods
Multi-Use Zoning
A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area
Smart Growth
A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities
Stakeholders
A person or organization with an interest in a particular place or issue
Transit Oriented Development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth
Infill
Development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities
Urban Growth Boundaries
A restriction on development outside a designated area
Eminent Domain
A principle that grants government the power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it