the recognition of contrast or incongruity between an expected outcome and the actual outcome, what is said and what is meant, and appearance and reality.
referance to something outside the subject at hand to add meaning and power. Ex: place, Story, character, thing, event, scientific facts.
a from of verbal irony, but whereas irony is detached and clever, this is heavy handed; whereas irony expresses strong feelings about large issues such as social conditions or human behavior, this expresses personal scorn and disapproval. This can be defined as harsh, cutting, personal remarks. It is meant to hurt and taunt.
writer reports less than what he means. Ex: someone looks good for a dance, someone else says "not to shabby".
the contrast between what is said and what is meant. When words suggest the oppostie of their usual meaning.