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Chapter 15 Phsyical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues
Terms in this set (56)
_______ is the age at which hald of the people born in a particular year will have died
average life expectancy
_______ is the number of years that a person is free from debilitating chronic disease and impairment.
useful life expectancy
______is the oldest age to which a person lives. Currently scientists estimate that the maximum limit for humans is arounf 120 years
maximum life expectancy
The young-old (age 65-74) is also called the ____ Age and is characterized as the "good news". The oldest-old us referred to as the _____ Age and is characterized as the "bad news".
Third Age; Fourth Age
There are four major groups of biological theories of aging:
wear-and-tear, cellular theories, metabolic theories, programmed cell death theories
________ theory suggests that the body, much like any machine, gradually deteriorates and finally wears out (this theory explains some diseases, such as osteoarthritis, rather well).
______theories focus on aspects of the body's metabolism to explain why people age. Two important processes in this approach are caloric intake and stress. There is some evidenc that who people who limit the number of calories they eat in otherwise well-balanced diet can expect longer life expectancy and lower rates of disease. Another variant in this theory suggests that the hormonal regulatory system's ability to adapt to stress decline.
_____ theories explain aging by focusing on processes that occur within individual cells, which may lead to the build-up of harmful substances or the deterioration of cells over a lifetime. One notion focuses on the number of times cels can divide, which presumably places limits on the life span of a complex organism. Cells grown in lab culture dishes undergo only a fixed number of divisions before dying, with the number of possible divisions dropping depending on the age of the donor organism. This phenomenon is called the ________. What causes cells to limit their number of divisions? Evidence suggests that the tips of chromosomes, called _____, play a major role.
cellular; Hayflick limit; telomeres
Other cellular theories stress the destructive effects that certain substances have on cellular functioning. For example, some theorists believe that ______ - chemicals produced randomly during normal cell metabolism, which bond easily to other substances inside cells - cause cellar damage that impairs functioning. Aging is caused by cumulative effects of __?___ over the life span
Another cellular theory focuses on _______, in which some protiens interact randomly with certain body tissues, such as muscles and arteries. The result of this is that normal, elastic tissue becomes stiffer, so that mucles and arteries are less flexible over time
_______ theories suffest that aging is genetically programmed. This possibility seems more liley as the explosion of knowlesge about human genetics continue to unlock the secrets of our genetic code. This process appears to be a function of physiological processes, the innate ability of cells to self-destructm and the ability of dying cells to triffer key processes in other cells.
programmed death cell theories
Three structural changes are most important in normal aging: _____, _____, _____
neurofibrillary tangles, dendritic changes, and neuritic plaques
Damaged and dying neurons sometimes collect around a core of protein and produce ______. It is likely that plaques interfere with normal functioning of healthy nearuons.
neuritic plaques. Large numbers of plaques are associated with dementia
For reasons that are not understood, fibres that compose the axon sometimes become twisted together to form spiral-shaped masses called _______
Some dendrites shrivel up and die, making it more difficult for neurons to communicate with each other. However, some dendrites continue to grow and this may explain why older adults continue to improve in some areas. All of this represents ______
With age, levels of neurotransmitters decline. These declines are believed to be responsible for numerous age-related behavioral changes, including those in memory and sleep, and perhaps in afflictions such as ______ disease
As people grow older, their chances of having a stroke increase. Strokes, or ______, are caused by interruption in blood flow in the brain due to a blockage or hemorrhage in a cerebral artery. Blockages of arteries may be caused by clots or by deposits of fatty substances due to the disease atherosclerosis. Hemerrhages are caused by ruptures of the artery. Older adults often experience _______, which involve an interruption of blood flow to the brain and are ofrten early warning signs of a stroke.
cerebral vascular accidents; transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).
Numerous small cerebral vascular accidents can result in a disease termed ______. Unlike Alzheimer's disease, this can have a sudden onset and may or may not progress gradually. Typical symptoms include hypertension, specific and extensive alterations on an MRI, and differential impairment on neuropychological tests that asses the ability to establish or maintain mental set and visual imagery, with relatively high scores on tests of delayed recognition memory.
The most common form of incapacitating respiratory disease among older adults is _______
Chronic-destructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
______ disease is known for its characteristic motor symptoms: very slow walking, difficulty getting into and out of chairs, and a slow hand tremor. These problems are cause by deterioration of neurons in the midbrain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine
Two major kinds of age related structural changes occur in the eye. One is the decreased amount of _____ that passes through the eye, resulting in the need for more light to do tasks such as reading. The other key structural changes involve the lens. As we grow older, the lends becomes more yellow, causing poorer colour discrimination in the green-blue-violet end of the spectrum, and its ability to adjust and focus declines as th muscles around it stiffen. This is what causes ______, the difficulty in seeing close objects clearly, necessitating either longer arms or corrective lenses.
The second major family of changes in vision result from changes in the retina. ________ involves the progressive and irreversible destruction of receptors from any of a number of causes. This disease results in the loss of the ability to see deatails and is the leading cause of functional blindness in older adults. A second age-relate retinal disease is a byproduct of diabetes. ________, as this condition is called, can involve fluid retention in the macula, detachment of the retina, hemorrhage, and aneurysms.
Macular degeneration; Diabetic retinopathy.
The cumulative effects of noise and normative age-related changes create the most common age-related hearing problem: reduced sensitivity to high-pitched tones, called _______, which occurs earlier and more severely than the loss of sensitivity to low-pitched tones.
presbycusis - this results from four types of changes in the inner ear: sensory, consisting of atrophy and degeneration of receptor cells; metabolic, consisting of a diminished supply of nutrients to the cells in the receptor area; neural, consisting of a loss of neurons in the auditory pathways in the brain; and mechanical, consisting of atrophy and stiffening of the vibrating structures in the receptor area.
True or false: the sense of taste remains largely intact in older adults, as do touch, temperature, and paun sensitivity. However, substantial declines in smell occur after age 70 in many people.
Older adults have more trouble sleeping than do younger adults, which is probably related to decreased 'ability' to sleep. Sleep problems can disrupt a person's ________, or sleep-wake cycle. This can cause problems with attention and memory
The biological theory of aging that includes the factors of free radicals and cross-linking is ______
Damaged and dying neurons that collect around the core of protein produce ______
The risk of getting cancer _____ markedly with age
Researchers view attention as having three major components:
When talking to someone at a party, we have to focus on what the person is saying and filter out all other noise. _______ attention involves the selection of relevant information and inhibition of irrelevant information.
_______, also called sustained attention, involves the maintenance of attention over time.
People's abilities to focus, switch, and divide attention is referred to as ________.
selective attention; vigilance; attentional control.
______ is the speed with which a person can make a specific response. This is also called reaction time and is one of the most studied phenomenon of aging, and hundreds of studies all point to the same conclusion: People slow down as they get older.
Remember a phone number long enough to dial it successfully requires good _____ memory. ______ memory involves the processes and structures that hold information in the mind and simultaneously use it to solve a problem, make a decision, perform some function, or learn new information.
working memory - working memory has a relatively small capacity. Because it deals with information that is being used right at the moment, it acts as a kind of mental scratchpad or blackboard.
The study of memory aging generally focuses on two types of memory: _____ memory, the deliberate and conscious remembering of information that is learned and remembered at a specific time, and _____ memory, the unconscious remembering of information learned at some earlier time.
Explicit memory is further divided into _____ memory, the general class of memory having to do with the conscious recollection of information from a specific time or event, and ______ memory, the general class of memory concerning the remembering of meanings of words or concepts not tied to a specific time or event.
Older adults tend to perform worse than younger adults on tests of episodic memory recall in that they omit more information, include more intrusions, and repeat more previously recalled items. In contrast, age differences on semantic memory tasks are typically absent. Similarily, age differences are typically absent on tests of implicit memory.
Camp and colleagues developed the E-I-E-I-O framework, which combines two types of memory: explicit and implicit. The framework also includes two types of memory aids. ______ aids are memory aids that rely on environmental resources, such as notebooks or calendars. _____ aids are memory aids that rely on mental processes, such as imagery
____-____ aids like rehearsal help people remember phone numbers. ____-____ are used when information needs to be better organized and rememberd, such as taking notes during a visit to the physician. ____-____ aids represent nearly effortless learning, such as association between the colour of the particular wing of the apartment building one lives in and the fact that one's residence is there. ___-___ aids such as icons representing time of day and the number of pills to take help older adults remember their medication.
explicit-internal; explicit-external; implicit-internal; implicit-external
True or false: contrary to what many people believe, wisdom is not influenced by age.
Wisdom-related performance involves intelligence (e.g. fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence), personality-intelligence interface (e.g. creativity, cognitive style, social intelligence), personality traits (e.g. openness to experience, personal growth, psychological-mindedness), life experience
As lone as the competing tasks in a test of divided attention are easy, older adults perform ______ younger adults
as well as
compared to age differences in free recall performance, age differences in recognition memory performance are _______
three factors that help a person become wise are general personal conditions, special expertise conditions, and ______
facilitative life contexts
True or false: the rate of severe depression increases from young adulthood to old age
false, it decreases
depression in later life is usually diagnoses on the basis of two clusters of symptoms that must be present for at least two weeks: feelings and physical changes. As with younger people, the most prominent symptom of depression in older adults is feeling sad or down, termed _____. But whereas younger people are likely to label these feelings directly as "feeling depressed", older adults may refer to them as "_____" or in terms of physical health such as "feeling tired". The second cluser of symptoms includes physical changes such as loss of appetite, insomnia, and trouble breathing.
dyphoria; feeling helpless.
There are two maun schools of thought about the causes of depression. One focuses on the _____ and _____ processes, particularly on the imbalances in specific neurotransmitters.
The second view focuses on psychosocial factors, such as loss and ________, or what one tells oneself about why certain things are happening which are emphasized as the cause of depression.
biological and physiological; internal belief systems
Regardless of how severe depression is, people benefit from treatment, often through a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Medications work by altering the balance of specific neurotransmitters in the brain. For very severe cases of depression, medications such as hetrocylic antidepressants (HCAs), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, or _______ (the most commonly used because of its lowest overall side effects of anti-depressants), can be administered.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Psychotherapy is a popular approach to treating depression, based on the idea that focusing on the psychological aspects of depression is helpful. Two forms of psychotherapy have been shown to be effective with older adults. The basic idea in _____ therapy is that depressed people experience too few rewards or reinforcements from their environment. Thus the goal of this therapy is to increase the goof things that happen and minimize the negative things.
often this is accomplished by having people increase their activities; simply by doing more, the likelihood that something nice will happen is increased. Additionally, behavior therapy seeks to get people to reduce the negative things that happen by learning how to avoid them.
A second effective approach is _____ therapy, which is based on the idea that maladaptive beliefs or cognitions about oneself are responsible for depression. From this perspective, a depressed person views him- or herself as unworthy and inadequate, the world as insesnsitive and ungratifying, and the future as bleak and unpromising.
______ disorders include problems such as feelings of severe anxiety for no apparent reason, phobias with regard to specific things or places, and OCD, in which thoughts or actions are repeatedly performed. These disorders are particularly common in older adults due to loss of health, relocation, stress, isolation, fear of losing independence, and many other reasons.
Arguably the most serious condition associated with aging is ______, a family of diseases involving serious impairment of behavioural and cognitive functioning. Of these disorders, Alzheimer's disease is the most common.
The key symptoms of _______ are gradual declines in memory, learning, attention, and judgement; confusion as to time and place; difficulties in communicating and finding the right words; decline in personal hygiene and self-care skills; inappropriate private social behavior; and changes in personality.
This disease is incurable and fatal
In its advanced stages, Alzhiemer's disease often causes ______ (the loss of bladder control) and total loss of mobility.
A great deal of attention has been given to the development of more definitive tests for Alzhiemer's disease while the person is still alive. Much of this work has focused on _____, a protein that is produced in abnormally high levels in Alzhiemer patients, perhaps causing the neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques.
Numerous effective behavioral and educational interventions have also been developed for Alzhiemer patients. One behavioural intervention, based on the E-I-E-I-O approach to memory intervention, involves using the implicit-internal memory intervention called _____, which involves teaching individuals with Alzhiemer's disease to remember new information by gradually increasing the time between retrieval attempts.
compared to younger adults, older adults are less likely to lanel their feelings of sadness as _____
a form of psychotherapy that focuses on people's belief's about the self, the world, and the future is called ______
relaxation techniques are an effective therapy for _____
the only way to definitively diagnose Alzhiemer's disease is through a _____
twisted fibres called ______ occur in the axuon of neurons in persons with Alzhiemer's disease.
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