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factors that affect people's ability to affect themselves

age & development, lifestyle, health status, cognitive awareness, sensory-perceptual alternations, emotions, communication ability & safety awareness

what are some types of hazards?

infectious waste, hazardous waste, excessive noise, electrical equipment & radiation

who is at higher risk for falls?

the very young & the elderly

why are older adults at greater risks for falls?

unsteadiness, vision changes & vertigo

when do a majority of falls occur?

when a patient is weak or medicated

safety reminder advice(SRD)

physical or chemical means used to restrict a client's movement, activity or access to their body.

who regulates the use of SRD's?

omnibus budget reconciliation act

what should you consider when selecting a restraint?

least restrictive, does not interfere with treatment, readily changeable, safe for the client & discreet.

how long should retraint remain on a client?

no more than 24 hrs

what must you always get before using a restraint?

a Doctors order

what are some types of restraints?

jacket/vest, mitt/hand, limb, belt, psychotropic & siderails

what are some restraint guidelines?

know facility's restraint policies, require a physicians order, observe client, release restraints & assess and provide.

what is implemented in a restraint free enviroment?

nurse assignments, constant observation, bed locked & low, stimulation, elimination treatments ASAP, relaxation techniques & evaluate medications.


event in which a client is caught, trapped or entangled in the space in or above the bedrail, mattress, or hospital bed frame.

what are some causes of fires in the health care facility?

patient smoking or faulty electrical equiptment

in case of fire you should do what?

RACE; Rescue & remove all patients in immediate danger, Activate alarm, Contain the fire, Extinguish the fire or evacuate the facility.

what of extinguisher is type A?

paper, wood, or cloth fires

what is a type B fire extinguisher?

flammable liquid fires, grease & anesthetics

what is a type c fire extinguisher used for?


what can a type ABC fire extinguisher be used for?

any type of fire

what is the major cause of death in children under 5 years of age?


what are some items that cause accidental poisoning in the health care facility?

cleaning solutions, disinfectants & drugs

what are some safety hazards in the workplace?

biologic, chemical & physical hazards, blood & bodily fluid, contaminated needles and radiation

what are body mechanics?

filed of physiology that studies muscular action & function of muscles in maintaining the posture of the body.

what are the general considerations for performing a physical task?

pull, push or roll an object, movements are smooth & coordinated, use arms & legs, keep work at comfortable height and keep in good physical shape.

fowlers position

head is raised 45 to 60 degrees


patients head is raised 30 degrees


patient is sitting up at a 90 degree angle


patient lies on their side with knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest.


patient is lying on their back


patient is lying on their stomach

knee -chest position

pt is on knees with arms and head rested on a pillow.


patient is lying supine with hips flexed and thighs abducted


body and legs are inclined while the head is positioned lower


patient is on their side

this is any body action involving the muscles & joints in natural diractional movements

range of motion ROM

active rom

muscle strengthening & prevention of muscle atrophy

passive rom

maintain joint flexibility and prevent contractures

how should you perform rom exercises?

twice a day, support extremity above and below the joint, stretch muscles by moving the body part & involve client in plannin exercise program

what are some joint rom exercises?

flexion, extension-hyperextension, abduction, adduction, supination, pronation & dorsiflexion

what is the chain of infection?

infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, method of transmission, portal of entry & susceptible host

aerobic bacteria

grows only in the presence of oxygen

anaerobic bacteria

grows only in the absence of oxygen


smallest known agents that cause disease


most common disease, belongs to the plant family


single celled animals that in paasitic form are found in the intestinal tract, genitourinary tract & respiratory tract


person or animal who harbors and spreads an organism, causing disease in others.


originating from within the body or produced from internal causes


originating from outside the body or produced from external causes


nonliving material that can host and transfer pathogenic microoranisms


a living carrier that can transmit microorganisms


any natural habitat of a microorganism that promotes growth & reproduction

portal of exit

the way the organism leaves the reservoir

method of transmission

the way the organism gets the host

portal of entry

most organisms enter the body using the same route by which I left

what is th progressive course of the infection process?

incubation period, prodomal stage, illness stage & convalescence

localized infection

limited to a specific pert of the body

systemic infection

affects the body as a whole

inflammatory response

the body's cellular response to injury or infection

nonsocomial infection

an infection aquired in a hospital or any other health care facility. Usually aquired within 72 hours

surgical asepsis

a group of techniques that destroy all microorganisms and their spores

medical asepsis

a group of techniques that inhibit the growth and spread of pathogenic micoorganisms

tier 1 isolation

standard precautions

tier 2 isolation

transmission precautions(airborne, droplet & contact)

sterile technique

sterile to sterile, objects out field of vision or below waste are considered contaminated, if prolonged exposure to air, object touches wet surface and only one inch of sterile field is considered contaminated


destroys microorganisms, but does not destroy spores


method used to kill all microorganisms

what are the 2 types of sterilization?

physical & chemical

physical sterilization

steam under pressure, boiling water, radiation or dry heat

chemical sterilization

gas, iodine, alcohol, and chlorine bleach

what are the steps for removing personal protective equiptment? (PPE)

remove gloves, remove eye protection, remove gown, remove mask & perform hand hygiene

the study of all factors that may be involved in the development of a disease


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