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Components of Emotions

Physiological, Expressive, Experiential

Physiological Emotions

How your body changes or responds to different emotions

Expressive Emotions

What you display (happy/sad)
EX: facial emotions, how you look physically

Experiential Emotions

Your subjective feeling of emotion
May be different for everyone
Personal interpretation of an emotion

Functions of Emotions

Regulate our behavior
Influence cognition
Affect interactions

Social Referencing

When children use other's responses as a guide for their emotional responses

Interactive Synchrony

How child/parent/caregiver are interacting will influence how they respond to peers later on.

Self-Conscious Emotions

Awareness of self in accordance with others
After age 2
Guilt, shame, envy, pride

Display Rules

Unwritten cultural guidelines governing how/when/where emotion is displayed
Different in different cultures (U.S vs. China/Japan)
Parents influence emotional development

Important Developmental Achievement

Is the ability to regulate one's emotions

Emotional Self-Efficacy

Ability to accept and be in control of one's emotions


Turning emotions inward instead of expressing them
May cause depression


Strong bond that emerges between infant/caregiver
Enduring social and emotional relationship

Theories of Attachment

Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Contact Comfort (Harlow & Harlow)
Ethological View (Bolwby)
Trust vs. Mistrust (Erickson)

Contact Comfort

(Harlow & Harlow)
Security provided by a physically soothing object, played greater role in attachment than the simple act of feeding.
- Did the cloth mother monkey and the wire mother monkey

Ethological View

Attachment occurs because infants have innate tendency to signal and the caregiver has predisposition to react to the signals
- Studied infants in institutions. some died bc there were too many children for caregivers to promote an emotional bond

Sequence of Attachment

1. Preattachment (0-2 months)
- Signaling behavior
- infants signal/caregiver responds
2. Attachment in making (3-5 months)
- Restriction to Response
- Begin to signal to certain people
3. Strong/True Attachment (6-12 months)
- show strong attachment to single person
- show separation anxiety/stranger anxiety
4. Final Phase (3 years)
- Reciprocal Relationships
- Can recognize when someone is happy and share experience

Erickson's View of Attachment

Basic Trust vs. Mistrust

Antecedents of Attachment Security

Caretaker responsiveness to infant's signals
Sensitivity to child's cues and interpretation
Accepting of their role as caregiver
Gentle persuasion rather than assertive control
Accessible caregiver

Negative Caregiver Responses

Rigid to interactions
Not feeling positive about role

Eye Contact

Infants who feel comfortable with caregiver will make synchronized eye contact with caregiver

Measurement of Interaction

Reaction of child when mom leaves and stranger is there as well as the reunion of mother

Types of Attachment

Secure Attachment

Secure Attachment

Good reunion behavior
Distress when caregiver is gone
Secure base (explore environment while "checking-in" with parent)


Avoid interactions with primary caregiver


Interact with caregiver and when caregiver leaves, they resist being comforted.
Comes from very inconsistent responses from caregivers


May show preference for caregiver/may not
May show distress when caregiver leaves/may not


Refers to HOW children behave as opposed to WHAT they do or WHY they do it
- different in general disposition
- stable well into adolescents

Categorizing Temperament

Easy Babies
Difficult Babies
Slow-to-Warm Up Babies
Inconsistently Categorized Babies

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