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Your subjective feeling of emotion
May be different for everyone
Personal interpretation of an emotion
How child/parent/caregiver are interacting will influence how they respond to peers later on.
Awareness of self in accordance with others
After age 2
Guilt, shame, envy, pride
Unwritten cultural guidelines governing how/when/where emotion is displayed
Different in different cultures (U.S vs. China/Japan)
Parents influence emotional development
Strong bond that emerges between infant/caregiver
Enduring social and emotional relationship
Theories of Attachment
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Contact Comfort (Harlow & Harlow)
Ethological View (Bolwby)
Trust vs. Mistrust (Erickson)
(Harlow & Harlow)
Security provided by a physically soothing object, played greater role in attachment than the simple act of feeding.
- Did the cloth mother monkey and the wire mother monkey
Attachment occurs because infants have innate tendency to signal and the caregiver has predisposition to react to the signals
- Studied infants in institutions. some died bc there were too many children for caregivers to promote an emotional bond
Sequence of Attachment
1. Preattachment (0-2 months)
- Signaling behavior
- infants signal/caregiver responds
2. Attachment in making (3-5 months)
- Restriction to Response
- Begin to signal to certain people
3. Strong/True Attachment (6-12 months)
- show strong attachment to single person
- show separation anxiety/stranger anxiety
4. Final Phase (3 years)
- Reciprocal Relationships
- Can recognize when someone is happy and share experience
Antecedents of Attachment Security
Caretaker responsiveness to infant's signals
Sensitivity to child's cues and interpretation
Accepting of their role as caregiver
Gentle persuasion rather than assertive control
Negative Caregiver Responses
Rigid to interactions
Not feeling positive about role
Infants who feel comfortable with caregiver will make synchronized eye contact with caregiver
Measurement of Interaction
Reaction of child when mom leaves and stranger is there as well as the reunion of mother
Good reunion behavior
Distress when caregiver is gone
Secure base (explore environment while "checking-in" with parent)
Interact with caregiver and when caregiver leaves, they resist being comforted.
Comes from very inconsistent responses from caregivers
May show preference for caregiver/may not
May show distress when caregiver leaves/may not
Refers to HOW children behave as opposed to WHAT they do or WHY they do it
- different in general disposition
- stable well into adolescents
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