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Philosophy Exam 1
Exam Is over Philosophy Introduction 1 and Plato's Apology
Terms in this set (21)
List and define the four (4) topical divisions of philosophy:
• Metaphysics- What is Real
• Epistemology- What is Reasonable
• Ethics- What is Good
• Aesthetics- What is Beauty
List the four (4) chronological periods of philosophy in order & their area of interest:
• Ancients- Ontology
• Medieval- Theology
• Modern- Epistemology
• Post Modern- Language
What are the three (3) skills needed for Philosophy?
What is an argument? What makes up an argument?
The process of reasoning from one claim to another. An argument may, but need not, be directed against an explicit alternative
Form & Content Make Up an Argument.
Explain the "Pattern of History"
•Teacher -teaches student
•Student - see things differently and teaches his way to his student
•Grand student- learns from student but may see things differently so he can also learn from teacher
What is the Socratic Method and how does it work?
Two or more people assist one another in finding the answers to difficult questions.
1. Begin with the pretense of knowledge - I assume that I rightly know X.
2. By question & answer "error" is discovered
(demonstrated?). - 1st stage of wisdom: realizing our own failure.
3. Continue question answer in search of truth". - stage of wisdom: motivated searching for truth.
4. Agreement (not necessarily full realized) - 3rd stage of wisdom: knowledge.
What is the "Test for Invalidity" and how does it work?
Only People who pay taxes can get a scholarship to NYU, Jim got a scholarship to NYU, Jim pays taxes.
what are the two (2) charges against Socrates in the Apology?
Impiety,corrupting the youth
What are the 5 "Moral Prerequisites" for doing philosophy?
1) Detachment from worldly goods
2) Focused devotion to truth & wisdom
3) Courage to stand up to the "common wisdom" of the day
5)Calling & Commitment
What accusations do Socrates' "first" accusers make against him?
Materialist - natural scientist like Anaxagoras.
Sophist - "Making the weaker argument the stronger." They were not Athenians.
Corrupter - Several well known young men, taught by Socrates, joined the
Spartans against Athens.
According to Socrates, what did he do to bring on such accusations?
He Tried to show Chaephrone he was not as wise as he thought he was.
After questioning of politicians, poets, and craftsmen,why does Socrates believe he is wiser than some people who are renowned for their wisdom?
Socrates acknowledges what he does and does not know.
In response to a question from Socrates' student Chaerephon, what did the oracle of Apollo at Delphi declare about Socrates?
No one was Wiser Than Socrates.
According to Socrates, how did he get a reputation for corrupting the young?
The sons of the wealthiest men with free time started examining Socrates and how he proved to the wise that they were not as wise as they thought thus displeasing the people and blaming Socrates for the corruption of the young.
What accusations do Socrates' "later" accusers make against him?
Corrupting The youth and Not believing in the gods.
How does Socrates try to defend himself against the charge that he corrupts the young?
(Horse Breeders with knowledge make horses better off) Socrates states that its unlikely that everyone in Athens are not corrupting the young but solely he is.
How does Socrates try to defend himself against the charge that he does not believe in the gods?
Socrates teaches about the demi gods and he believes that a baby cant be born without parents so with that belief if he believes in demi gods he must believe in gods
If the jury had been willing to acquit Socrates on the condition that he stop practicing philosophy Socrates says that he would not have agreed to this condition. Why?
I am grateful and I am your friend, but I will obey the god rather than you, and as long as I draw breath and am able, I shall not cease to practice philosophy.
What does Socrates mean by saying that he is like a gadfly to the city of Athens?'
Just as a gadfly constantly agitates a horse, preventiung it from becoming sluggish and going to sleep so too Socates, by (moving through the City) stirring up conversations in the marketplace, prevents the City from becoming sulggish and careless and intolerant (thinking it knows something when it doesn't).
What punishment does Socrates at first suggest for himself? Why?
Socrates proposes a reward for himself: as benefactor to Athens, he should be given free meals in the Prytaneum
Why does Socrates not suggest that he be exiled?
he would be irrational to expect non-Athenians to put up with his philosophical questioning when his own people would not put up with it:
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