38 terms

US History: Women IDs

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The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Two rival organizations (National Women Suffrage Association and American Women Suffrage Association, both founded in 1869) combined in 1890 to create one large pro-suffrage group.
Their aim was to push for suffrage rights in the state level, and eventually pressure the federal government to create an amendment. Both strategies from NWSA and AWSA were used to achieve this goal.
Cult of Domesticity
A cult which limited women's influence to only homes and families. Under the name of god, they identified the four cardinal virtues of a "true woman" to be pious, pure, domestic, and submissive. These values were prevailing during the 19th century in US and GB.
This is said to emphasize new ideas of femininity. The older ideas of women being sweet and kind, and confined to their houses.
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
A public protest meeting held in Seneca Falls, New York, in July 1848 as a response to the Cult of Domesticity. It was also known as the first women's rights convention.

Held by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. The Seneca Falls Convention is seens as but a single step in the continuing effort by women to gain for themselves a greater proportion of social, civil and moral rights, but the convention was viewed by others as a revolutionary beginning to the struggle by women for complete equality with men. Declaration of Sentiments for Women's Rights
recognized convention for suffrage
-> Women's Rights.
Alice Paul
1885~1977
Women's Rights Activist who dedicated her life's work to women's rights and was a key figure in the push for the 19th Amendment (ERA).
Lead suffragist movement. Member of NAWSA
Equal Rights Amendment
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman. In 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time.
It was designed to guarantee equal rights for women, but in the end was never passed.
Suffrage
Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote on the same terms as men.Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden, Britain, and some western U.S. states in the 1860s.
This was the goal of the suffragists and the suffragettes.
Carrie Chapman Catt
President of the NAWSA, As well as the founder of League of Women Voters, and the International Alliance of Women.
She "led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920"
She lobbied tirelessly for the 19th amendment.
Susan B. Anthony
1820~1906
She was an American social reformer and feminist who played a great role in the women's suffrage movement. Pressed the first laws passed by New York's legislature that ensured for women control of property, wages, and rights over their children.
Played a pivotal role in getting women the right to vote. Founded the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Was one of the first to lecture about temperance, abolition and women's right.
American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA)
The AWSA was formed in November 1869 in response to the American Equal Rights Association. In 1890 the NWSA and the AWSA emerged to form the NAWSA (National American Woman's Suffrage Association.)

Believed not only in the right for women to vote but also strongly supported securing the right to vote for African American men. Founded by Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell and Julia Ward Howe. The AWSA was less militant than the NWSA and the AWSA was only concerned with obtaining the vote.
Feminism
The belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men. Gained momentum during the mid- 1800s and led to the women's suffrage, or women's right to vote, in 1920.
Feminism is about the gain of equal rights and opportunities for women and allowing women to have control have their lives. The term is one of identification but also one of symbolism, many people identify as a feminist but also feminism symbolizes the history of fighting for equal opportunities for women.
Sojourner Truth
An African- American abolitionist and women's rights activist. Born into slavery in Swartekill, New York but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826. Won court case for her son's legality. Committed herself in women's right after her freedom as well as civil rights. Her best known speech on racial inequalities in the women's suffrage, "Ain't I a Woman?" was delivered in 1851 at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention.
Prominent abolitionist and women's rights activist. Fought not only for the civil wars of African-Americans but also for women's rights despite the color of women. Demonstrated the hypocrisy of the feminist movement of that time as many demanded equality only for white women.
American Equal Rights Association
1866~
Made to secure Equal Rights to all American citizens, especially the right of suffrage, irrespective of race, color or sex.
As the 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution were debated, and some states debated black and woman suffrage, women's suffrage advocates tried to join the two causes, but with little success and resulted in a split in the women's suffrage movement. The split resulted in the American Equal Rights Association.
19th amendment
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920. Amended the Constitution to extend voting rights to women.
Finally granted equal rights for voting.
National Association of Colored Women (NACW)
Founded by African- American women in 1896, the NACW managed nurseries, reading, rooms and kindergartens. Its intention was "to furnish evidence of the moral, mental and material progress made by people of color through the efforts of our women." Highly progressive.
The National Association of Colored Women provided a safe haven for colored women to be educated and involved in suffrage. The founders of the NACW include Harriet Tubman, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett and Frances E.W Harper. The NACW also began the most prominent organization formed during the Black Women's Movement and were involved in campaigns in favor of women's suffrage and Jim Crow Laws.
Birth Control
Contraceptives to prevent pregnancies.
Major American birth control activist, Margaret Sanger attempted to distribute contraceptives to women in the poverty and ended up getting arrested due to birth control being illegal.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
It is the first mass organization among women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity."

WCTU was one of the largest and most influential women's groups of the 19th century. The support from this group caused some problems, since the alcohol industry became a large opponent in this movement. Women helped out passing alcohol-restriction laws, as they were frequently targets of alcohol related violence.
Jeannette Pickering Rankin
The first woman to be elected into the United States congress.
"I may be the first woman member of Congress but I won't be the last." She became an organizer for the New York Women's Suffrage Party and a lobbyist for the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).
She believed that the corruption and dysfunction of the United States government was a result of a lack of feminine participation.
Prohibition
1920-1933 An act where alcohol was banned.
Many of the leading members for prohibition was women. This had something to do with the fact that women had control over the homes. There were alcoholic abuses and such.
National Consumers League
The National Consumers League, founded in 1891, is an American consumer organization. It is a private, nonprofit advocacy group representing consumers on marketplace and workplace issues. It was founded by Florence Kelley.

League established labeling certifying that products were made under fair working conditions, protected workers from exploitation by employers, promoted food inspection and advocated for child labor restrictions, the limiting of work hours and establishing minimum wage laws for women.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
She wrote the speeches, in which Anthony had delivered.
She helped hold the Seneca falls convention in 1848, where they wrote the "declaration of sentiments
She wrote the book, The Women's Bible, which argued that religion, was one of the leading causes for women's oppression.

This caused her to lose many of her followers
Anthony and Stanton founded the national Women Suffrage association. They are thought to be one of the founding people for women's suffrage.
Muller v. Oregon
Curt Muller was convicted of violating Oregon labor laws by making a female employee work more than ten hours in a day. Concluded that women were unequal and inferior to men.
The outcome justified sex discrimination. Equal-rights feminists were against this because it worked so heavily on the separation of the sexes into two stereotyped gender-roles and restricted women's financial independence.This labor law gave white women more protection, but it excluded women of color, food processors, agricultural workers, and white collar educated women.
The Woman's Bible
A nonfiction book written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and 26 other people in 1985- 1989.
This was written to challenge the traditional position of religious orthodoxy that woman should be subservient to man. However, many women's right advocates opposed this book, as they thought the publication of this book would harm the drive of women's suffrage.
Abigail Adams
The wife of John Adams. She believed women should take more part in decisions rather than just serve their husbands. She believed that women should educate themselves and use their intellect to manage the household affairs, as well as be a moral guide for the family.
She writes to her husband who was working on the declaration of independence asking that he and the other men--who were at work on the Declaration of Independence to "Remember the Ladies."
Lowell Female Labor Reform Association
Started by twelve operatives in January 1845. A labor union which was started and run by women.

The Association was run completely by the women themselves: they elected their own officers and held their own meetings; they helped organize the city's female workers, and set up branches in other mill towns. Found considerable support from working-class men who welcomed them into their reform organizations and advocated for their treatment as equals.
Woman in the Nineteenth Century (by Margaret Fuller)
A book by American journalist, editor, and women's rights advocate Margaret Fuller. Originally published in July 1843 in The Dial magazine as "The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men. Woman versus Women", it was later expanded and republished in book form in 1845.
a key document in American feminism that first appeared in serial form in 1839 in The Dial, a transcendentalist journal
National Women's Rights Convention
Annual series of meetings that increased the visibility of the early women's rights movement in the United States.

First held in 1850 in Worcester, Massachusetts, the National Women's Rights Convention combined both male and female leadership, and attracted a wide base of support including temperance advocates and abolitionists. Speeches were given on the subjects of equal wages, expanded education and career opportunities, women's property rights, marriage reform and temperance. Chief among the concerns discussed at the convention was the passage of laws that would give suffrage to women.
Married women's property laws
Married women's property laws were established in the nineteenth century where states began enacting common law principles affecting the properties of married women.

Series of statutes that gradually, beginning in 1839, expanded the rights of married women to act as independent agents in legal contexts.
Lucy Stone
She convened the first national Women's Rights convention in Worcester, Massachusetts. She was also very involved in the abolishing of slavery, she found work in the American Anti-slavery society, which helped her as a public speaker. She supported the 15th amendment while others like Anthony and Stanton were against it.

She believed that even if the 15th amendment was only for Blacks, soon it would lead to women's voting rights as well.
Ida B Wells Barnett
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, and a leader in the civil rights movement.
1896 she set up the National Association of colored women. As a part of her National Equal Rights League, called for president Woodrow Wilson to put an end to discriminatory hiring practices for government jobs. She created the first African American kindergarten in her community
She was also one of the first African American woman in the nation to run for public office.
Declaration of Sentiments
Document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men—100 out of some 300 attendees at the first women's rights convention to be organized by women. The convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York, now known as the Seneca Falls Convention. Some of its key organizers were Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Coffin Mott, and Martha Coffin Wright.
The principal author of the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments was Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who based it on the form of the United States Declaration of Independence. According to the North Star, published by Frederick Douglass, whose attendance at the convention and support of the Declaration helped pass the resolutions put forward, the document was the "grand movement for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women."
Kate Roosevelt
Kate Roosevelt was the relative of Teddy Roosevelt who played a great role as an anti-suffragist.
Kate Roosevelt, Teddy Roosevelt's relative, was an anti-suffragist. She called the women who wanted to vote as "Soapbox Militants." She explained in her diary that women's rights was unnecessary and that women were biologically destined to be childbearers and homemakers. This convinced many anti-suffragists that women had total domestic freedom at home and that not staying at home was going against their law of nature. This became the superior perspective as men thought this was a great philosophy.
Women's Loyal National League
formed on May 14, 1863, to campaign for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would abolish slavery. It was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, its president, and Susan B. Anthony, its secretary. In the largest petition drive in the nation's history up to that time, the League collected nearly 400,000 signatures on petitions to abolish slavery and presented them to Congress. Its petition drive significantly assisted the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, which ended slavery in the U.S.

The League was the first national women's political organization in the United States. It marked a continuation of the shift of women's activism from moral suasion to political action, and from a women's movement that was loosely structured to one that was more formally organized. It also contributed to the development of a new generation of leaders and activists for the women's movement.
New York State Association
The New York State Association was founded in 1897 and by 1908 it had over 90 members.
This association provided anti-suffragism by producing pamphlets and publications explaining their views of women's suffrage until the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed in 1920. It then extended to a Geneva Branch in 1909.
Equal Pay act of 1963
An act passed by JFK in 1963. It stated that
"No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs, the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions, except where such payment is made pursuant to (i) a seniority system; (ii) a merit system; (iii) a system which measures earnings by quantity or quality of production; or (iv) a differential based on any other factor other than sex"
It was meant to abolish the difference in wage between different genders.
Sarah Bagley
An advocate for women's rights and one of the most important labor leaders in New England during the 1840s.

She was the president of the LFLRA, and was a frequent contributor to The Voice of Industry, a labor newspaper. She had a women's column.
From 1948 she worked with the Quakers as the executive secretary of the Rosine Home, providing a safe place for prostitutes and disadvantaged young women. She was probably the first woman telegrapher in the US.
Remonstrants
Anti-suffrage forces organized as early as 1870 when the Woman's Anti-Suffrage Association of Washington was formed. opposed women's suffrage, feminism, and socialism. It argued that woman suffrage "would reduce the special protections and routes of influence available to women, destroy the family, and increase the number of socialist-leaning voters.
Middle and upper class women had personal access to powerful politicians, and were reluctant to surrender that advantage. Most often the antis believed that politics was dirty and that women's involvement would surrender the moral high ground that women had claimed, and that partisanship would disrupt local club work for civic betterment, as represented by the General Federation of Women's Clubs.
Civil rights act of 1964
Outlawed all forms of discrimination, whether it be against race, gender or religion.
This was mainly for against racial discrimination. Title VII in this act talks the most about sexual discrimination.
Educational Amendments of 1972
(mainly title IX)
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
This is best known for its Title IX, which was against sexual discrimination.
This guaranteed women and other minorities to go to school. It was also for people with different races, but it also stopped people from sexual discrimination.