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60 terms

Chapter 8: Operating Systems and Utility Programs

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system software
consists of programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices. serves as the interface between the user, application software, and computer's hardware
operating system
set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources
platform
operating system that a computer uses
booting
process of starting or restarting a computer
cold boot
turning on a computer that has been powered off completely
warm boot
process of using the operating system to restart a computer
kernel
core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer's clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer's resources
memory resident
remains in memory while the computer is running
nonresident
instructions remain on a storage medium until they are needed
BIOS:basic input/output system
firmware that contains the computer's startup instructions
POST:power on self test
tests that make sure the computer hardware is connected properly and operating correctly
registry
consists of several files that contain the system configuration information
boot drive
from which your personal computer boots
boot disk/recovery disk
disk that contains a few system files that will start the computer
sleep mode
saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state
hibernate
saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer
user interface
controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
graphical user interface
interface where you interact with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands
command line interface
interface where user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions
command language
set of commands entered into the computer
single user/single tasking
operating system that allows only one user to run one program at a time
single user/multitasking
operating system that allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time
multiuser
operating system that enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously
multiprocessing
operating system that supports two or more processors running programs at the same time
fault tolerant computer
continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost
memory management
optimizes the use of random access memory
virtual memory
when operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM
swap file
area of hard disk used for virtual memory because is swaps data, information and instructions between memory and storage
buffer
segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device
spooling
process that sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer
driver
small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device
performance monitor
program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices
server operating system
operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network
stand alone operating system
complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device
UNIX
multitasking operating system developed by scientists at Bell Laboratories
Linux
popular, multitasking UNIX type operating system, is open source software
embedded operating system
operating system on mobile devices that resides on a ROM chip
utility program
type of a system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
file manager
utility that performs functions related to file management
search utility
program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify
image viewer
utility that allows users to display, copy and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo
uninstaller
utility that removes a program
disk defragmenter
utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs fun faster
defragmenting
reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors
backup utility
allows users to copy, or back up, selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium such as another hard disk, optical disc, USB flash drive, or tape
restore utility
reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form
personal firewall
utility that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions
worm
malware that copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system
Trojan horse
malware that hides within or looks like a legitimate program
spyware
program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge and secretly collects information
adware
program that displays an online advertisement
spyware remover
program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs
web filtering software
program that restricts access to certain material on the Web
anti-spam programs
filtering program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches your inbox
phishing filter
program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites
pop-up blocker
filtering program that stops pop up ads from displaying on Web pages
file compression utility
shrinks the size of a file
zipped file
compressed file with .zip extension
uncompress
to restore a file to its original form
personal computer maintenance utility
identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, includes the capability of improving a computer's performance