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Affective Neuroscience Exam 3
Terms in this set (47)
Models of attention
1. voluntary vs reflexive
2. overt vs covert attention
volitional or intentional focusing of attention
automatic orienting of attention induced by stimulus-driven effects
turning one's head or eyes toward a stimulus
directing attention without moving eyes
Cocktail party effect
Selective attention: ability to focus on one aspect of sensory information to the exclusion of others
-Requires topdown control (internally driven)
-can be influenced by stimulus-driven attention (bottom up)
Amygdala and Thalamus on attention
Amygdala can influence attention through connections with thalamus.
-Affects significance of stimulus
-Amygdala also influences significance of rewards-influencing reinforcing properties of basal ganglia circuit
Early detection of threat
sustained attention/difficulty disengaging
depression/working memory load
anxiety if you have resources
maintenance in working memory
conversion of sensory inputs into memory traces
-acquisition: short term memory
-consolidation: stabilization of memory
occurs through acquisition and consolidation
accessing stored information through recall, recognition, motor acts
memory for incoming sensory information, low attention, very high capacity
Echoic vs iconic memory
iconic: imagery. can hold onto image even when not looking
Mismatch field (event related field potential)
measured with magneto-encephalograph. Very good temporal and spatial resolution. very expensive. measures magnetic fields so can't measure all components
Short term memory
attended information. Longer time course (30 seconds), smaller capacity.
-if rehearsed, info can enter long-term memory
attention and manipulation of incoming sensory information.
-attentional resources needed to manipulate information
controls two slave systems: phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad
verbal or acoustic information
visual and spatial information
Explicit (declarative) memory
a person walking down the street
Relational: recognize them, no memory of events or info about them (PFC, some parietal areas)
Semantic: know their name, but no memory of how met (brain area depends on info e.g. info left lateralized)
Episodic: remember when met, past interactions (parietal and temporal lobes)
Cognitive vs habit memory
Cognitive memory mediated by....
(hippocampus for explicit memory consolidation, some storage)
Habit memory mediated by...
basal ganglia (caudate nucleus of dorsal striatum important for habit learning)
Double dissociation studies in rats support what?
multiple memory systems using win-shift vs win-win maze
Encountering stress releases...
sympathetic (norepinephrine) and HPA-axis (cortisol) signaling molecules
Chronic elevated cortisol leads to...
atrophy in hippocampus, hypertrophy in basal ganglia
Acute stressors favor...
habit memories, mediated by basal ganglia, at the expense of cognitive memories
Long term potentiation
Glutamate NMDA receptor.
-glutamate binds to AMPA, depolarizes neuron; glutamate and D-serine bind to NMDA receptor, magnesium ion released, sodium and calcium flow into the cell.
-Calcium and intracellular messenger, binds with proteins, changes cell and strengthens communication
processes by which new information can be associated with previously stored information.
-A more top-down influence of encoding than threatening stimuli (dorsolateral PFC important in this process)
-Low arousal stimuli, which will not grab attention, can be encoded through these more elaborative processes
-However, more impaired by distracting stimuli or secondary processes
processing internal representations of past experiences-constructing them across brain areas
-Autobiographical memory retrieval includes medial and lateral PFC, medial temporal lobe, parietal lobe
-similar brain areas in encoding and retrieval of memories
-Hippocampus directs other brain areas, binding details together
Bower (1981) network theory of affect
activating emotion 'nodes' also activates related emotional information
Mood congruent memory
cingulate gyrus important.
-Amygdala may guide mood-congruent retrieval as individuals 'search' for negative information
PTSD example of mood congruent memory
Biases in encoding?
-research suggests dissociation during trauma increases PTSD
-dissociation characterized by not being fully present
-manipulating working memory load during trauma films shown to increase re-experiencing symptoms
-manipulating attention during trauma films also increases re-experiencing symptoms
patient EVR had orbitofrontal cortex damage
-could generate solutions, but could not prioritize these solutions
OFC associated with emotional processes (connections with cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala)
-could emotions optimize decision making?
Somatic marker hypothesis
previous emotional experiences needed to guide decision making
-somatic markers are the physiological changes experienced
-OFC important for learning associations between situations and physiological arousal
-this arousal is used to evaluate behavioral responses and likely for rewards
Decision making circuit
-OFC-learning pattern of behavior and reward vs punishment
-vmPFC-learning associations with stimuli and abstract decision
-Basal ganglia-reward learning/habit memory
-Amygdala-saliency of rewards
-Hippocampus-cognitive memory processes
-Supplementary motor area-processing upcoming movements and rewards
cortex in between frontal and temporal lobe
-highly activated in pain perception, interception
-activity correlated with decision making
Inhibition: ability to stop a prepotent response
Shifting: ability to stop one task and start another
Updating: changing the content of working memory
*these functions allow us to regulate our behavior and emotions
Lateral prefrontal cortex
cognitive control, short term memory, inhibition of prepotent responses, selective attention
Medial frontal cortex: anterior cingulate involvement
cognitive control, error detection, resolving conflict
several emotions and emotional disorders associated with deficits in inhibition
-impulsivity (excessive striatal activation)-decreased ability to inhibit responses, delay discussing
-ADHD (low cortical arousal)-impulsive, hyperactive, inattentive
-Anxiety and depression: difficulty inhibiting emotional stimuli
anxiety, depression, ADHD deficits
-emotional stimuli capture attention (emotional blink), reinforcing stimuli capture attention
deficits in depressed individuals, difficulty updating working memory following negative stimuli, leads to rumination
worry associated with excessive performance monitoring (ERN), substance use disorders associated with deficits in performance monitoring