Terms in this set (31)

- overuse:
- consider whether the space saved by abbreviations in the following sentence justifies the time necessary to master the meaning
- underuse:
- abbreviations introduced on first mention of a term and used fewer than 3 times thereafter
- a term to be abbreviated must, on its first appearance, be written out completely and followed immediately by its abbreviation in parentheses
- a term used after its first appearance can be typed as its abbreviation
- explain abbreviations that appear in a figure in the caption or legend
- explain those that appear in a table either in the table title or in the table note
- explain an abbreviation that is used in several figures or tables in each figure or table in which the abbreviation is used
- avoid introducing abbreviations into figure captions or table notes if they do not appear in the figure or table
- standard abbreviations for units of measurement do not need to be written out on first use
- APA permits the use of abbreviations that appear as word entries in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (do not need explanation in text) (IQ, REM, ESP, AIDS, HIV, NADP, ACTH
- some abbreviations may not be in the directionary but appear frequently in the journal for which you are writing (should still be explained when first used)
- latin abbreviations (cf[compar], i.e.[that is], e.g.[for example], viz.[namely], etc.[and so forth], vs.[versus, against]
- for units of measurement use abbreviations and symbols (no period or capital/unless at end of sentence)
- Purposes of Data Displays:
- data displays can serve several purposes
- exploration
- communication
-calculation
- storage
- decoration
- in scientific publication, the communication function of graphical displays dominates; however, other features (e.g., sotrage) may be useful in a graphical representation
- Design and Preparation of a Data Display:
- design graphical display with the reader in mind; that is, remember the communicative function of the display
- place items that are to be compared next to each other
- place labels so that they clearly abut the elements they are labeling
- use fonts that are large enough to be read without the use of magnification
- include all of the information needed to understand it within the graphical image - avoid novel abbreviations, use table notes, and label graphical elements
- keep graphical displays free of extraneous materials, no matter how decorative those materials may make the graphic look
- communication is the primary purpose of the graphic. This does not mean, however, that well-designed, aesthetically pleasing graphics are not important. An attractive graphical display makes a scientific article a more effective communication device
- Graphical vs. Textual Presentation:
- be selective in choosing how many graphical elements to include in paper
1. a reader may have difficulty sorting through a large number of tables and figures and may lose track of message
2. a disproportionately large number of tables and figures compared with a small amount of text can cause problems with the layout of typeset pages; text that is constantly broken up with tables will be hard for the reader to follow
3. graphical presentations are not always optimal for effective communication
- when planning tables for inclusion in a manuscript, determine (a) the data readers will need to understand the discussion and (b) the data necessary to provide the "sufficient set of statistics" to support the use of the inferential methods used
- Conciseness in Tables:
- limit the content of tables to essential materials
- tables with surplus elements are less effective than lean tables
- the principle of conciseness is relevant not only for text tables but also for tables to be placed in online supplemental archives
- tables should be integral to the text but should be designed so that they can be understood in isolation
- Table layout:
- layout should be logical and easily grasped by the reader
- table entries that are to be compared should be next to one another
- different indices (e.g., means, standard deviations, sample sizes) should be segregated into different parts of lines of tables
- position variable and condition labels in close proximity to the values of the variable to facilitate comparison
- all tables are meant to show something specific
- often, the same data can be arranged in different ways to emphasize different features of the data
- Standard forms:
- some data tables have certain standard (canonical) forms
- advantage of using the canonical form is that the reader generally knows where to look in the table for certain kinds of information
- one may want to use a format other than the canonical table form to make a specific point or to stress certain relationships
- the judicious use of nonstandard forms can be effective but must always be motivated by the special circumstances of the data array
- when using nonstandard forms, make certain that labeling is extremely clear because most readers will assume that the canonical form is being used
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