57 terms

The Heritage of the World Chapter 27

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Great Depression
a prolonged worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 with the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange
Weimar Republic
the German republic that came to power in 1918 embodying the hopes of German liberals
1929 stock market crash
the event that triggered the Great Depression
Hoover moratorium
the end to all payments of international debts announced by the U.S. President in 1931
MacDonald
the Labour prime minister who organized a National Government-- a coalition of the Labour, Conservative, and Liberal Parties
Easter uprising
the 1916 nationalist rebellion in Dublin
1916
date of the Easter uprising in Dublin
Dublin, Ireland
city where the 1916 Easter uprising occurred
Sinn Fein
the extremist nationalist movement in Ireland whose name meant "Ourselves Alone"
IRA
the military wing of Sinn Fein which fought the British army to gain Irish independence
Popular Front
a government of all left-wing parties that took power in France in 1936 to enact social and economic reforms
Trotsky
the leader of the Red Army who suppressed internal and foreign military opposition to the new government during the civil war that raged in Russia from 1918 to 1920
Cheka
the secret police of the Soviet Union
War Communism
the economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War to seize the banks, heavy industry, railroads, and grain
New Economic Policy
a limited revival of capitalism, especially in light industry and agriculture, introduced by Lenin in 1921 to repair the damage inflicted on the Russian economy by the civil war and War Communism
Third International (Comintern)
the Soviet communist government which worked to make the Bolshevik model of socialism the rule for all socialist parties outside the Soviet Union
Stalin
the man who became general secretary of the Communist party in 1922 and came to control the Soviet state
Gosplan
the planning commission that set goals for production in economic life an attempted to organize the economy to meet them
collectivization
the bedrock of Stalinist agriculture, which forced Russian peasants to give up their private farms and work as members of collectives, large agricultural units controlled by the state
kulaks
the small group of prosperous peasants who became Stalin's scapegoats for argicultural problems in the Soviet Union
Great Purges
the arrests, trials, Commmunist Party expulsions, and executions that mainly targeted party officials and reached its cimax from 1936 to 1938
Sergei Kirov
the member of the Politburo whose assassination signaled the beginning of the Great Purges
Mussolini
the leader of the Italian fascist movement
fascism
term for a system of extreme right-wing dictatorial government
Duce
Mussolini's title as head of the Fascist Party (means "leader")
Lateran Pact
the agreement by which the Roman Catholic Church and the Italian state made peace with each other
1922
the year when Mussolini became prime minister of Italy
Victor Emmanuel II
the king of Italy
French occupation of the Ruhr Valley
France's action to secure the payment of reparations from Germany
1923
the year when France occupied the Ruhr Valley
Hitler
the German dictator who led the Holocaust
National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis)
the German party formed in 1920 that supported a mythical Aryan race alleged to be the source of the purest German lineage
Sturm Abeteilung
the Nazi parliamentary foes, or storm troopers
Mein Kampf
strategy dictated by Adolf Hitler during his period of imprisonment in 1923 outlining his political views
Stresemann
the German official who was responsible primarily for reconstruction of the republic and for its achievement of a sense of self-confidence
Dawes Plan
the plan which lowered the annual payments and allowed them to fluctuate according to the fortunes of the German economy
Hindenberg
the conservative German president who increased employment and presided over the Locarno Agreements
Locarno Agreements
the agreements in which France accepted Germany's proposal for a fresh start, bringing new hope to Europe
Kellogg-Briand Pact
the pact in which Europe, Japan, and the U.S. renounced "war as an instrument of national policy"
Reichstag
the building to which a mentally ill Dutch Communist set fire
Reichstag fire
the event during which a mentally ill Dutch Communist tried to destroy a building in Berlin
Roehm
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Fuhrer
means "leader"; the title taken by Hiter when he became dictator of Germany
Schutzstaffel (SS)
the chief security units of the Nazi state
Kristallnacht
meaning "crystal night" because of the broken glass that littered German streets after the looting and destruction of Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany on the orders of the Nazi Party in November 1938
The Final Solution
Hitler's 1942 resolution to destroy the Jews in Europe
Goring
the man whom Hitler put in charge of undertaking a four-year plan to prepare the German army and economy for war
Poland
the country that experienced division and a military coup during the 1920s
Pilsudski
the man who carried out a military coup in Poland and ruled until his death
Czechoslovakia
the country that was divided among ethnic groups and was taken over by Germany
Hungary
the country who went through many rulers and experienced a suffering agrarian economy
Horthy
the Hungarian regent for the Habsburg monarch who could not return to his throne
Schuschnigg
the man who presided over Austria until Hitler annexed it
Yugoslavia
the country which was divided among the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Serbs
the ethnic group which dominated the Yugoslavian government
Croats
the ethnic group which opposed the Serbs in Yugoslavia
Slovenes
the ethnic group which played the Serbs and Croats against each other in Yugoslavia