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once the fatty acid is converted to its CoA ester, the second step in beta oxidation is the transport into the ___ ___
once the CoA ester is transported into the mitochondrial matrix, it undergoes a sequence of 4 repetitive steps:
3) dehydrogenation (a second one)
4) carbon-carbon cleavage (thiolase reaction)
acyl CoA synthetase couples with the cleavage of __ to __and ___ in the reaction of fatty acid -> CoA ester
ATP, AMP, pyrophosphate (PPi)
what drives the entire reaction of fatty acid -> CoA ester strongly to the right?
breakdown of pyrophosphate (to inorganic phosphate)
fatty acids esterified with __ are capable of being transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane
the enzyme __ __ converts the fatty acid CoA ester to the O-acylated carnitine which is transported across the mitochondrial membrane by the transporter
carnitine acyltransferase I (CA1)
once on the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the acylated carnitine is transformed by carnitine acyltransferase II (CA2) back into the __ __ ___
fatty acyl CoA
O-acylcarnitine is transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane by __/__ shuttle
once inside the mitochondrial matrix, the fatty acyl CoA ester undergoes 4 reactions, the first reaction is catalyzed by __ __ __ and __ is converted to __ in the process
acyl CoA dehydrogenase, FAD, FADH2
the double bond that is formed in the first dehydrogenation reaction of fatty acyl CoA ester in the mitochondrial matrix has a __ stereochemistry
in the second reaction of fatty acyl CoA in the mitochondrial matrix, __ is added across the double bond and the enzyme used is __ __ __
water, enoyl CoA hydratase
the third reaction in the sequence of 4 reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix is another __ reaction, but in this case, the alcohol is oxidized to a ketone using __ as the oxidizing agent
the b-ketoacyl CoA formed in the third step in the mitochondrial matrix is catalayzed by __ which cleaves off a molecule of acetyl CoA, leaving the __ __ of the original fatty acid but with __ less carbon atoms
thiolase, CoA ester, 2
the 4 reaction sequence is repeated, losing 2 carbon atoms each cycle, in the final reaction sequence in which the 4-carbon butyroyl CoA thioester is oxidized, the final thiolase reaction produces two molecules of __ __
example of beta oxidation: palmitoyl CoA (16 carbon atoms) goes through _ cycles of beta oxidation and is completely broken down to __ molecules of acetyl CoA, generating _ FADH2 and _ NADH
7, 8, 7, 7
how many molecules of ATP are generated from FADH2 when palmitoyl CoA (16 carbons) undergoes the beta oxidation process?
10.5 (takes 7 cycles, forms 7 FADH2, 1 FADH2 = 1.5 ATP, 7X1.5 = 10.5)
how many molecules of ATP are generated from NADH when palmitoyl CoA (16 carbons) undergoes the beta oxidation process?
17.5 (takes 7 cycles, forms 7 NADH, 1 NADH = 2.5 ATP, 7x2.5 = 17.5)
how many molecules of ATP are formed for every molecule of palmitoyl CoA that is completely oxidized (beta oxidation plus citric acid cycle) to carbon dioxide and water?
106 (not 108, have to subtract 2 ATP b/c we have to use them in esterification to get the faty acid into the system)
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