the first step in beta oxidation is the conversion of the free fatty acid to its __ __
once the fatty acid is converted to its CoA ester, the second step in beta oxidation is the transport into the ___ ___
once the CoA ester is transported into the mitochondrial matrix, it undergoes a sequence of 4 repetitive steps:
1) dehydrogenation 2) hydration 3) dehydrogenation (a second one) 4) carbon-carbon cleavage (thiolase reaction)
each cycle of the 4 steps in the mitochondrial matrix lops off __ carbon atoms
where does the esterification of the free fatty acid with CoA occur?
outer mitochodondrial membrane
what enzyme catalyzes the reaction of a fatty acid to its CoA ester?
Acyl CoA synthetase
acyl CoA synthetase couples with the cleavage of __ to __and ___ in the reaction of fatty acid -> CoA ester
ATP, AMP, pyrophosphate (PPi)
what drives the entire reaction of fatty acid -> CoA ester strongly to the right?
breakdown of pyrophosphate (to inorganic phosphate)
in general, __ is an enzyme that utilizes ATP, whereas __ does not use ATP
how many high energy phosphate bonds (ATP) are lost in the reaction of fatty acid -> CoA ester?
is the CoA fatty acid ester able to pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane?
fatty acids esterified with __ are capable of being transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane
the enzyme __ __ converts the fatty acid CoA ester to the O-acylated carnitine which is transported across the mitochondrial membrane by the transporter
carnitine acyltransferase I (CA1)
once on the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the acylated carnitine is transformed by carnitine acyltransferase II (CA2) back into the __ __ ___
fatty acyl CoA
O-acylcarnitine is transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane by __/__ shuttle
enzyme __ occurs only in outer membrane of mitochondria
__ reforms the CoA ester and releases carnitine
once inside the mitochondrial matrix, the fatty acyl CoA ester undergoes 4 reactions, the first reaction is catalyzed by __ __ __ and __ is converted to __ in the process
acyl CoA dehydrogenase, FAD, FADH2
the double bond that is formed in the first dehydrogenation reaction of fatty acyl CoA ester in the mitochondrial matrix has a __ stereochemistry
in the second reaction of fatty acyl CoA in the mitochondrial matrix, __ is added across the double bond and the enzyme used is __ __ __
water, enoyl CoA hydratase
the third reaction in the sequence of 4 reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix is another __ reaction, but in this case, the alcohol is oxidized to a ketone using __ as the oxidizing agent
the b-ketoacyl CoA formed in the third step in the mitochondrial matrix is catalayzed by __ which cleaves off a molecule of acetyl CoA, leaving the __ __ of the original fatty acid but with __ less carbon atoms
thiolase, CoA ester, 2
__ and __ are generated in beta oxidation
the 4 reaction sequence is repeated, losing 2 carbon atoms each cycle, in the final reaction sequence in which the 4-carbon butyroyl CoA thioester is oxidized, the final thiolase reaction produces two molecules of __ __
example of beta oxidation: palmitoyl CoA (16 carbon atoms) goes through _ cycles of beta oxidation and is completely broken down to __ molecules of acetyl CoA, generating _ FADH2 and _ NADH
7, 8, 7, 7
how many molecules of ATP are generated from FADH2 when palmitoyl CoA (16 carbons) undergoes the beta oxidation process?