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3 main areas of a cell

cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm

where is mRNA located

in the nucleus and on any ribosomes in the cell

function of mRNA

to transcribe DNA

structural type of mRNA


function of tRNA

locate and attach to amino acids, match its anticodon to the codon on mRNA, translate mRNA into a protein

tRNA can change its shape and has many jobs

adapter molecule

which of the 4 arms of tRNA attaches to an amino acid?

3' end

which of the 4 arms of tRNA attaches to mRNA?

the anticodon

which of the 4 arms of tRNA attaches to another tRNA?

the D loop and PψT loop

the ladder like structure of DNA is considered

primary structure

double helix structure of DNA is considered

secondary structure

constituents of DNA

phosphates, riboses, A,T,C,G

which bond is weakest

that between A and T

DNA in tertiary structure

nucleosome, chromatid

DNA in quaternary level


Which level is considered chromatin?

double helix

most unique characteristic of the mitochondria?

self replication as it has its own DNA

Kreb's Cycle takes place in the ___ of the mitochondria


The function of the mitochondria does not include

storing ATP

functions of Golgi

storage and packaging, makes peroxisomes and lysosomes, apoptosis

alternate names for smooth ER

agranular, sarcoplasmic

alternate names for rough ER

granular, ribosomal

which type of ER is directly connected to the nuclear membrane


Which type of ER primarily functions to metabolize lipids, steroids, carbohydrates, regulate calcium, and detoxify drugs?


Which type of ER primarily functions to synthesize proteins and glycosylation?


Smooth ER and Golgi are distinguished by the fact that the lamellae in Golgi are

separate sacs

The methylation of DNA and RNA is thought to have a part in


Acetylation causes DNA to

unwind and be transcribed

Methylation causes DNA to

coil up tight and not be read

Vesicles that bring foods and nutrients into the cell do so by

invagination of the cell membrane and endocytosis

function of lysosomes

cell digestion, lysis of invading organisms, production of lipases, hydrolases, proteases

what part of the double layer phospholipid membrane is hydrophobic?

the long fatty acid tails within

which part of the double layer phospholipid membrane is polar?

the round phosphate heads

function of the plasma membrane

control what goes in and out of the cell or organelle it protects

acts as a receptor or transducer of molecules

integral protein

move laterally through PLM

peripheral protein

provide rigidity to the PLM


allows rapid absorption of lipids

phospholipid bilayer

hormones, targeting domains, toxins, or electron carriers

peripheral proteins

allows rapid movement of water into or out of the cell


allows for rapid movement of dissolved ions

integral protein

cell is performing its daily functions

G1 phase

nuclear membrane forms


chromosomes align in the middle of the cell


cell membrane starts to pinch at center


nuclear membrane starts to dissolve


a spindle is formed between the centrioles as they move to opposite sides of the cell


chromatids separate along the spindles


chromatin condenses into chromosomes


centrioles pull on the centromeres of the chromatids


ovum is in this stage most of its existence


when the outcome of division is two exact daughter cells in a prokaryotic cell it is called


when the outcome of division is four haploid cells in a eukaryotic cell it is called


when the outcome of division is two genetically different daughter cells in a prokaryotic cell by swapping DNA through a pilus, it is called


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