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cytology and histology test

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3 main areas of a cell
cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
where is mRNA located
in the nucleus and on any ribosomes in the cell
function of mRNA
to transcribe DNA
structural type of mRNA
primary
function of tRNA
locate and attach to amino acids, match its anticodon to the codon on mRNA, translate mRNA into a protein
tRNA can change its shape and has many jobs
adapter molecule
which of the 4 arms of tRNA attaches to an amino acid?
3' end
which of the 4 arms of tRNA attaches to mRNA?
the anticodon
which of the 4 arms of tRNA attaches to another tRNA?
the D loop and PψT loop
the ladder like structure of DNA is considered
primary structure
double helix structure of DNA is considered
secondary structure
constituents of DNA
phosphates, riboses, A,T,C,G
which bond is weakest
that between A and T
DNA in tertiary structure
nucleosome, chromatid
DNA in quaternary level
chromosome
Which level is considered chromatin?
double helix
most unique characteristic of the mitochondria?
self replication as it has its own DNA
Kreb's Cycle takes place in the ___ of the mitochondria
matrix
The function of the mitochondria does not include
storing ATP
functions of Golgi
storage and packaging, makes peroxisomes and lysosomes, apoptosis
alternate names for smooth ER
agranular, sarcoplasmic
alternate names for rough ER
granular, ribosomal
which type of ER is directly connected to the nuclear membrane
rough
Which type of ER primarily functions to metabolize lipids, steroids, carbohydrates, regulate calcium, and detoxify drugs?
smooth
Which type of ER primarily functions to synthesize proteins and glycosylation?
rough
Smooth ER and Golgi are distinguished by the fact that the lamellae in Golgi are
separate sacs
The methylation of DNA and RNA is thought to have a part in
transcription
Acetylation causes DNA to
unwind and be transcribed
Methylation causes DNA to
coil up tight and not be read
Vesicles that bring foods and nutrients into the cell do so by
invagination of the cell membrane and endocytosis
function of lysosomes
cell digestion, lysis of invading organisms, production of lipases, hydrolases, proteases
what part of the double layer phospholipid membrane is hydrophobic?
the long fatty acid tails within
which part of the double layer phospholipid membrane is polar?
the round phosphate heads
function of the plasma membrane
control what goes in and out of the cell or organelle it protects
acts as a receptor or transducer of molecules
integral protein
move laterally through PLM
peripheral protein
provide rigidity to the PLM
cholesterol
allows rapid absorption of lipids
phospholipid bilayer
hormones, targeting domains, toxins, or electron carriers
peripheral proteins
allows rapid movement of water into or out of the cell
aquaporin
allows for rapid movement of dissolved ions
integral protein
cell is performing its daily functions
G1 phase
nuclear membrane forms
Telophase
chromosomes align in the middle of the cell
metaphase
cell membrane starts to pinch at center
telophase
nuclear membrane starts to dissolve
prophase
a spindle is formed between the centrioles as they move to opposite sides of the cell
prophase
chromatids separate along the spindles
anaphase
chromatin condenses into chromosomes
prophase
centrioles pull on the centromeres of the chromatids
anaphase
ovum is in this stage most of its existence
G1
when the outcome of division is two exact daughter cells in a prokaryotic cell it is called
mitosis
when the outcome of division is four haploid cells in a eukaryotic cell it is called
meiosis
when the outcome of division is two genetically different daughter cells in a prokaryotic cell by swapping DNA through a pilus, it is called
conjugation