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American System-

a pre-Civil War set of measures designed to unify the nation and strengthen its economy by means of protective tariffs, a national bank, an such international improvements as the development of a transportation system

Annex -

to incorporate a territory into an existing political unit, such as a state or a nation

Armistice -

a truce, or argument to end an armed conflict

Bank of the United States-

either of the two national banks, funded by the federal government and the private investors, established by congress, the first in 1791 and the second in 1816


the group of department heads who serve as the president's chief advisors


a government ban on trade with one or more other nations

Excise tax-

a tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country

"Fifty-Four Forty of Fight!"-

A slogan in the 1844 presidential campaigns call for the U.S annexation of the entire Oregon Territory

Forty-niners -

one of the people who migrated to California in search of riches, after gold was discovered there in 1848

Gold Rush-

a movement of many people to a region in which gold has been discovered


the forcible seizures of men for military service

Manifest Destiny-

the 19th-century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory

Mass Production-

the production of goods in large quantities, made possible by the use of machinery and the division of labor

Midnight Judge-

one of the judges appointed by John Adams in the last hours of his administration


a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation

Neutrality -

a refusal to take part in a war between other nations


a state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional


an office holder's power to appoint people- usually those who have him or her get elected- to positions in government

Popular sovereignty-

a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue

Protective tariff-

a tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's business from forgiven competition


the placing of the interests on one's own region ahead of the interests of the nation as a whole

Spoils system-

the practice of winning candidates' rewarding their supporters with government jobs

War Hawk-

one of the members of Congress who favored war with Britain in the early years of the 19th century

Whig Party-

the political party formed in 1834 to oppose the policies of Andrew Jackson

Writ of Mandamus-

an order by a court to a public official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion; used only when all other judicial remedies fail

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