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Most abundant type of cell in plants; spherical or elongated cells with thin flexible walls; most usually have a large central vacuole; sometimes contains fluid or sap; main functions are storage and food production


Cells thicker to provide support; irregular in shape; specialized for supporting regions of the plant that are still lengthening


Very thick rigid walls provide support; support and strengthen plant in areas where growth is no longer occurring; dead at maturity providing a frame if support

Plant tissues

Dermal vascular and ground

Dermal tissue

Forms the outside covering; epidermis is one of the layers; openings in the leaf and stem epidermis called stomata


composed of flattened parenchyma cells; covers all parts of the plant, tightly packed together and produces the waxy cuticle


openings in the cuticle that control the exchange of gases; guard cells control the opening and closing

root hairs

epidermis gives rise to; extentions are indiviual cells that help the root absorb water and minerals


epidermis gives rise to; on the stem and leaves of some plants, giving them a fuzzy apperance

vascular tissue

transport food, minerals, water throughout the plant; types are xylem and phloem


plant tissue composed of tube-shaped cells that transport warer and minerals upward; made up of tracheids and vessel elements which are cylindrical and dead at maturity (sclerenchyma);

vessel elements

better at doing their job than trachieds


in seedless vascular plants and in most gymnosperms


series of living tubular cells (sieve tube members) that transport sugars from the leaves to all parts of the plant; have companion cells the keep them ALIVE; parenchyma cells

companion cells

next to each parenchyma cells in the phloem; nucleated cells that help manage transport through the STM

sieve plates

the end walls between the two STM's in angiosperms

ground tissue

storage, metabolism and support; includes all tissues other than dermal and vascular; mainly composed of parenchyma cells but has collenchyma and sclerenchyma as well; fuctions- photosynthesis (leaves and stem) storage (stem and root) and support

Meristematic tissue

control growth; regions of actively dividing cells; small, spherical parenchyma cells with large nuclei

Apical meristem

found at or near the tips of the roots and stems; allow increase in length; PRIMARY GROWTH

Intercalary meristem

located above the bases of leaves and stem in some monocots; allow grass leaves to grow quickly after being mowed

lateral meristem

only found in gymnosperms and most dicots; found in roots and stems; allow an increase in width or diameter of a plant SECONDARY GROWTH; two types- Vascular cambium and cork cambium

vascular cambium

located between the xylem and phloem; produces new vascular tissue in the stems and leaves

cork cambium

located outside the phloem and produces cork; cork cells replace the epidermis in woody stems and roots; provides protection and prevents water loss


roots, stems, and leaves


underground parts of a plant; anchor plant to the ground; absorb water and nutrients(micronutrients and macronutrients) and transport these up to the stem; some may store food; types- tap, fibrous, and adventious

tap root

a central, fleshy root with smaller branch roots; DICOT

fibrous root

many roots branching from a central place; MONOCOT

adventious roots

roots that grow from unusual places; types-aerial and prop

aerial roots

cling to objects such as walls and provide support for climbing roots

prop roots

help support tall plants

root structures

root cap, epidermis, root hairs, xylem and phloem

root cap

protective coveringg on the apical meristem that produces a lubricating oil, making it easier for the root to penetrate soil

roots in dicots

xylem forms a central star-shaped mass with the phloem cells between

roots in monocots

strands of xylem alternate with phloem strands; usually have central core of parenchyma cells=pith (form in a circle)


above ground parts of plants that support leaves and flowers; two types-woody and herbaceous; function are to provide supports for all above ground parts, transport water, minerals ions, and sugars to and from the roots and leaves


short, thickened underground stems surrounded by leafy scales


swollen, underground stems that have buds that will sprout new plants


undergroound stems that store food


grow along soil surface and produce new plants

stems in dicots

xylem and phloem are arranged in circular bundles that form a ring in the cortex

stems in monocots

vascular bundles of xylen and phloem scattered throughout


he movement of carbs through a plant


primary function-photosynthesis; most are flat with good SA

leaf structure

epidermal layer, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and more of the epidermal layer

palisade mesophyll

made up of colums shaped cells containing many chloroplasts; found just under the upper epidermis layer which allows for max. exposure to the sun; most photosynthesis takes place here

spongy mesophyll

composed of loosely packed, irregularly shaped cells which are surrounded by many airspaces which allow carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor to flow freely around the cells


loss of water through the stomata; the opening and closing of the guard cells regulate transpiration; causes plants to lose up to 90% of all water they transport from the roots


parrallel veins


branched veins

cactus spines

reduce water loss and protect from herbivores



food storage

enlarged fleshy leaf bases that cover bulbs

catching insects

venus fly trap

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