MIS Concepts II
Terms in this set (75)
Consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system.
The set of instructions the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks.
Runs most hardware/software. Its a communications system that is created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate.
-As more companies need to share information, the network takes on greater importance in the infrastructure
What kind of network infrastructure do most companies use?
A client and server network
A computer designed to request information from a server.
A computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests
When someone uses a web browser (client) to access a website (server- because it responds with the web page being requested by the client)
A person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business.
Three primary areas where enterprise architects focus when maintaining a firm's MIS infrastructure.
1. Information MIS: supports operations
2. Agile MIS: supports change
3. Sustainable MIS: supports sustainability
Agile infrastructure characteristics
An exact copy of a system's information.
The ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure that includes restoring the information backup.
The ability for a system to respond to unexpected failures or system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service.
-expensive- only mission critical applications and operations use it.
A specific type of fault tolerance, occurs when a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes, the users are automatically directed to a secondary server or backup server.
-high-speed and high-cost method of recovery
Occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server.
Agile MIS infrastructure
Includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equiptment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organizations goals.
Refers to the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system.
Unrestricted access to the entire system.
Means that people with disabilities, including visual, auditory, physical, speech, etc can use the web.
Web accessibility initiative
brings together people from industry, disability organizations, government, and research labs from around the world to develop guidelines and resources to help make the web accessibility to people with disabilities.
Refers to the time frames when the system is operational:
unavailable- when the system is not operating and cannot be used.
high availability- occurs when a system is continuously operational at all time.
Archive standard of availability
"five nines" 99.999%
Refers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes.
-Helps measure how quickly and effectively a system can be changed or repaired after a failure.
Refers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems.
Ensures a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information.
Vulnerability- under reliability
a system weakness, such as a password that is never changed or a system left on while an employee goes to lunch, that can be exploited by a threat.
-reliable systems ensure that vulnerabilities are kept at a minimum to reduce risk.
Describes how well a system can scale up, or adapt to the increased demands of growth.
Performance- under scalability
Measures how quickly a systems performs a process or transaction.
-a key component of scalability because systems that cant scale suffer from performance issues.
Capacity- under scalability
Represents the maximum throughput a system can deliver.
Capacity Planning- under scalability
Determines the future environmental infrastructure requirements to ensure high-quality system performance.
The degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use
-Serviceability- how quickly a third party can change a system to ensure it meets user needs and the terms of any contracts, including agreed levels of reliability, maintainability, or availability.
Refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)
Information levels of organization information
A. Information levels:
-individual knowledge, goals and strategies.
-department goals, revenues, expenses, processes, and strategies.
-enterprise revenues, expenses, processes, and strategies.
1. Document - letters, memos, fax, etc.
2. Presentation- product, strategy, process, financial, etc.
3. Spreadsheet- sales, marketing, industry, financial
4. Database- customer, employee, sales, order, supplier, etc.
1. Detail (fine)= reports for each salesperson, etc.
2. Summary- reports for all salesperson
3. Aggregate (coarse)- reports across all departments, organization, companies.
Five characteristics of good info
Relational database model
Stores information in the form of logically related, two-dimensional tables.
Relational database management system
Allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in a relational database.
rules that help to ensure the quality of information: 2 types:
1. relational- rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints.
A business rule defines how a company performs certain aspects of its business and typically results in a yes/no or true/false answer.
2. Business critical integrity constraints- enforces business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.
A logical collection of information, gathered from many different operational databases, that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks.
-Primary purpose: to combine information, more specifically, strategic information, throughout an organization into a single repository in such a way that the people who need that information can make decisions and undertake business analysis.
Information cleansing or scrubbing
a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information.
Data Quality Audits
Determine the accuracy and completeness of its data.
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
-Companies use data mining techniques to compile a complete picture of their operations, all within a single view, allowing them to identify trends and improve forecasts.
Data mining tools
Use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large large volumes of information that predict future behavior and guide decision making.
The general idea of a network is to allow multiple devices to communicate at the highest achievable speeds and to reduce the cost of connecting. Networks are categorized based on a geographic span: local area networks, wide area networks, and metropolitan area networks.
Local Area Network (LAN)
connects a group of computers in close proximity
ex. office building, school, or home
-LANS allow: sharing files, printers, games, and other resources.
-LANS often connect to other LANS and WANs
Wide Area Network (WAN)
spans a large geographic area such as a state, province, or country.
ex. The internet
-WANs are essential for carrying out the day-to-day activities of many companies and government organizations, allowing them to transmit and receive information among their employees, customers, suppliers, business partners, and other organzations across cities, regions and countries around the world.
-WANs ofter connect to multiple smaller networks, such as local area networks or metropolitan area networks.
represents the loss of a network signal strength measured in decibals and occurs because the transmissions gradually dissipate in strength over long distances or because of radio interferance or physical obstructions such as walls.
receives and repeats a signal to extend its attenuation or range.
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
is a large computer network, usually spanning a city.
-Most colleges, universities and large companies than span a campus use an infrastructure supported by a man.
allow separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems. Allows the sharing of info across databases
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
takes information entered info a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
provide enterprise-wide support and data access for a firm's operations and business processes.
Enterprise application integration
connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems.
integrations are achieved using middleware- several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications. middleware translates information between disparate systems.
consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in obtaining raw materials or a product. five basic supply chain activities:
1. order entry system
2. billing system
3. order fulfilment systems
4. sales system
5. customer information system
supply chain execution systems
ensure supply chain cohesion by automating the different activities of the supply chain.
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
a standard format for the electronic exchange of information between supply chain participants
Customer relationship management
a means of managing all aspects of a customers relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organizations profitabliy.
Three phases in the evolution of CRM
1. Reporting- help organizations identify their customers across other applications.
2. Analyzing- help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers
3. Predicting- help organizations predict customer behavior, such as which customers are at risk of leaving.
Supplier relationship management
focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects.
Employee relationship management
provides web-based self-service tools that streamline and automate the human resources department
Enterprise resource planning
integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system so employees can make decisions by viewing enterprise-wide information about all business operations.
Client Server Architecture
inside LAN, MAN, WAN there is a client server architecture.
-it is a hub and spoke architecture- one computer does all the workload and the nodes piggyback off the big computer.
determines the speed of neutrality of material by inspecting and descriminating packets.
ex) netflix buffers midway though the movie because the server wants you to share the connection with other people in the network.
A company in germany that sells and implements large scale ERP packages.
dependent demand inventory- relationship between 2 component parts
same approach applied to people, property, cash
Early 90's, companies were buying lots of tech but with no plan of how to allocate the money. Cash flowed down functional areas of the firm so that the different functional areas were building the best systems for their purpose, that were all independent of one another. This created a disconnected architecture that allowed only local but not global optimization. Then entered a period of business process reeingineering. Companies were facing a productivity paradox, where tech spending was going up but productivity was either flat or going down. This got firms paying attention to siloed architecture, with consultants saying that the reason why companies arent getting value out of their tech is because business processes run from left to right and employees were having to pull reports from four or five different systems. Companies started building middlewear that patched together the systems from different functional areas. This allowed for better operational efficiency, but still no strategic value for clients.
There was zero feedback loop at the time, so companies recognized that and build patches backward to send feedback backwards through the system. There was still a problem, and that was that there was an exponential cost associated with growing the system. SAP saw a better way- dont automate, obilterate.
SAP obliterated existing architecture and brought in one software- ERP- that integrated all FA's of an organzation into one IT system.
SAP runs on a client-server architecture
-It breaks down the core business processes and defines them as logically related transaction types
-Inside of each activities, there are a list of transactions that you can do in the category.
Three tier architecture
1. GUI- installs on the client
2. GUI talks to the application server
3. The application server then talks to the database server
the highest defined level of an organization as it relates to installing SAP
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