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56 terms

micro bio 3

micro
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symbiosis
relationship in which two species live closely together
parasitism
one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
mutalism
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the asociation.
commensalism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
species richness
the number of different species in a community
species abundance
The number of individuals of each species
draw and explain nitrogen cycle
draw and explain nitrogen cycle
niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
prime niche
set of conditions an organism will grow most successfully in
formation of a biofilm
initiated by attachment of a cell to a surface
quorum sensing
cell to cell chemical communication
AHL
major signaling molecules in biofilms for intra and inter species
back mutation
when a mutated gene reverses to its original base composition
genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
open reading frames
Long stretches of DNA that encode proteins because they have no stop codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) via mRNA
operons
a set of genes, all of which are regulated as a single unit. may read in either direction.
centisomes
units of measurement (minutes)
locus
the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome
prophage
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.
transposable elements
Genetic element that has the ability to move (transpose) from one site on a chromosome to another.
restriction sites
The DNA sequence that is recognized by a restriction enzyme; the restriction enzyme cuts at this sequence, generating two DNA fragments
HFR
High Frequency Recombination-Bacterial strains that can transfer their chromosome because they have a plasmid integrated into their genome
OriC
The origin of replication in E. Coli.
endonucleases
an enzyme that cuts the bonds within a polynucelotide chain
protease inhibitor
drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps to create new viral pieces for HIV
E. coli genome
use lateral transfer.
lateral transfer
allows individual genes, organelles, or fragments of genomes to move horizontally from one lineage to another
plasmids
-The small, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering.
-carry unessential genes
-can provide antibiotic resistance
-many exist in multiple numbers
episome
A genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.
genotype
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
transposons
(jumping genes) short strands of DNA capable of moving from one location to another within a cell's genetic material
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
missense mutation
The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
nonsense mutation
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
silent mutation
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
frameshift mutation
A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
transduction
(genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
degredation
A decline to a lower condition, quality, or level
warfarin
an anticoagulant used as rat poison/blood thinner
vitamin K exOxide reductase
enzyme that recycles vitamin K
folic acid
a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
fusion inhibitor
blocks T lymphocyte from membrane fusion (HIV)
neuraminidase inhibitor
blocks active site for neuraminidase (influenza A+B)
nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors
viral polymerase inhibitors (herpes virus) + reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV
synthetic amines
(amantadine) blocks virus uncoating. antiviral agent; increase release of stored DA
auxotroph
any mutant microorganism having a nutritional requirement that is absent in the parent
prototrophs
strains capable of synthesizing all nutitional requirements not present in the media in which they are grown in
colonization
ability of microorganism to remain at a particular site and multiply
pathogen
An organism that causes disease
virulence
relative power of a pathogen to cause disease
infection
(medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease
disease
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
transient organisms
organisms that are not at their normal site of growth or niche