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relationship in which two species live closely together


one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it


A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the asociation.


the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it

species richness

the number of different species in a community

species abundance

The number of individuals of each species

draw and explain nitrogen cycle

draw and explain nitrogen cycle


(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)

prime niche

set of conditions an organism will grow most successfully in

formation of a biofilm

initiated by attachment of a cell to a surface

quorum sensing

cell to cell chemical communication


major signaling molecules in biofilms for intra and inter species

back mutation

when a mutated gene reverses to its original base composition


sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

open reading frames

Long stretches of DNA that encode proteins because they have no stop codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) via mRNA


a set of genes, all of which are regulated as a single unit. may read in either direction.


units of measurement (minutes)


the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome


A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.

transposable elements

Genetic element that has the ability to move (transpose) from one site on a chromosome to another.

restriction sites

The DNA sequence that is recognized by a restriction enzyme; the restriction enzyme cuts at this sequence, generating two DNA fragments


High Frequency Recombination-Bacterial strains that can transfer their chromosome because they have a plasmid integrated into their genome


The origin of replication in E. Coli.


an enzyme that cuts the bonds within a polynucelotide chain

protease inhibitor

drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps to create new viral pieces for HIV

E. coli genome

use lateral transfer.

lateral transfer

allows individual genes, organelles, or fragments of genomes to move horizontally from one lineage to another


-The small, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering.
-carry unessential genes
-can provide antibiotic resistance
-many exist in multiple numbers


A genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.


the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism


what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype


(jumping genes) short strands of DNA capable of moving from one location to another within a cell's genetic material


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

missense mutation

The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.

nonsense mutation

A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.

silent mutation

A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.

frameshift mutation

A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.


process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria


(genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage


In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.


A decline to a lower condition, quality, or level


an anticoagulant used as rat poison/blood thinner

vitamin K exOxide reductase

enzyme that recycles vitamin K

folic acid

a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction

fusion inhibitor

blocks T lymphocyte from membrane fusion (HIV)

neuraminidase inhibitor

blocks active site for neuraminidase (influenza A+B)

nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors

viral polymerase inhibitors (herpes virus) + reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV

synthetic amines

(amantadine) blocks virus uncoating. antiviral agent; increase release of stored DA


any mutant microorganism having a nutritional requirement that is absent in the parent


strains capable of synthesizing all nutitional requirements not present in the media in which they are grown in


ability of microorganism to remain at a particular site and multiply


An organism that causes disease


relative power of a pathogen to cause disease


(medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease


any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body

transient organisms

organisms that are not at their normal site of growth or niche

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