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Chapter 13 and 20 Test
Terms in this set (42)
formed from precipitation that has fallen and travelled through rocks and soil until it reaches layer of impermeable rock
zone of saturation
areas beneath Earth's surface completely filled with water
underground spaces and layers of soil and rock containing groundwater
precipitation that filters down through soil and rock to replenish aquifer
water that moves sideways from rivers, and streams to recharge aquifer
precipitation or snowmelt that flows across, exists at Earth's surface
precipitation snowmelt that does not evaporate or soak into ground, it flows into the lakes, rivers and oeans.
area of land which drains to a particular body of water
reliable surface runoff
predictable amount of yearly runoff that can be used as freshwater source
structure built across river to control water flow
body of water created behind dam, its goals are to control flooding, produce electricity, and supply water for communities, water for irrigation.
part of a power plant that spins magnets past one another to generate electricity
begins from Rocky Mountain snowmelt, most of watershed exists in rain shadow of California Mountains, heavily dammed, used for irrigation, supplies water to many major cities, laws allow for use of more water than river can supply, usually fails to reach mouth at Gulf of California
California Water Project
transfer water from northern California to south
located in Kazakhstan, central Asia, is in a economic and environmental disaster, which is now a dry lake bottom is now desert, land, and water have become saltier, health of human population declined, dust and pollutants carried far away, summers hotter and winters colder
China South North Water Transfer Project
this uses canals, reservoirs, dams to transfer water from southern regions to drier north, ex. route to transfer to Yangtze river water to Beijing, concerns water will carry pollution north, destroy ecosystems of south, disrupt natural water processes, advocates feel it will reduce desertification of north, cause less dependence on aquifers
removal of salts from ocean water or brackish water (from lakes and estuaries)
heat water, water evaporates and is collected, salt is left behind
use high pressure to push saltwater through a filter which removes salt
water flows through unlined ditches (canals) through crop fields, absorbed into soil
center pivot irrigation
uses sprinklers and pumps, results in circular irrigated field
uses pipes with small holes to deliver water at or below the surface, more costly to set up but less than 10% is wasted.
uses containers, earth structures to collect rainwater; water can also be used for home use
polyculture and agroforestry
growing crops among other types of crops and natural plants
region around a body of water in which water overflows, include wetlands, provide flood and erosion control, purify water and recharge water, they are heavily settled, waterways altered
very flat, only slightly above sea level, densely populated very poor, people of the region rely on flooding for soil, rich farms, human development of region has made flooding worse in the past 50 years.
chemical, physical, biological change of water that harms living organisms makes water unusable.
in 1997, labeled as North America's most endangered urban waterway
located in India, is considered sacred by many Hindus, used for drinking, bathing, transportation, religious ceremonies, release of cremation remains. Heavily polluted by human sewage, human and animal corpses.
this is caused by nitrates and phosphates from fertilizer, detergents. This is also from livestock, mining, sewage. Also algae dies and decomposes, also uses up oxygen.
waste that take much longer to break down
wastes that are essentially permanent
methyl, tertiary, butyl, ether (type of groundwater pollutant) gasoline addictive, carcinogen in humans, leaking gasoline tanks contaminated groundwater with this.
gets in the groundwater from fertilizer, can cause cancer, blue baby syndrome
naturally occurring in low levels, soil and rocks, mining has led to increased as levels, also a carcinogen.
receive most of ocean's pollution
oil straight from the ground
oil that has been processed ex. gasoline
Volatile organic compounds
oil contains these, parts that form tar balls on surface and components that coat ocean bottom floors.
Clean Water Act
1972, set standards for U.S water pollution, issues permits limiting amount of pollution to holders, and triumphs the act, when greater amount of Americans receiving water that meets government standards, more miles of waterways deemed fishable or swimmable, less loss of topsoil, less wetlands, more Americans served by sewage treatment plants.
25% of U.S homes (mostly non-urban) waste from home deposited into underground septic tank near house, solids sink-decomposed by bacteria, oils and other substance rise, partially treated waste and slowly released into soil through small holes, soil helps filter material, bacteria break down biodegradable waste.
sewage treatment plant
sewage from homes travel through pipes to plant, this is primary treatment and uses physical processes, uses screens to filter out large particles and settling tanks where suspended solids sink.
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