135 terms

HI 101 Test 3

CHP 9-11
Death and Ressurrection of Christ
roman Persecution of Christians begins under Nero/ apostles peter and paul martyred
Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity
all 27 books of N.T. have been written
(greek: witness) people who died for Christ's cause
"The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church"
number of great persecutions
1st persecution
Nero (64) blamed fire in Rome of the Chrisitan community
Paul & Peter martyred
martyred under Nero's persecution
2nd persecution
Domitian (81-96) demanded to be worshipped
John martyred
martyred under Domitian
tunnels underground where Christian would hide, worship and bury their dead.
5 "good emperors"
Trajan, Ignatius, Hadrian & Antonnius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Ignatius martyred
under Trajan
Polycarp martyred
under Hadrian and Antonnius Pius
Justin Martyr killed
under Marcus Aurelius
Blandina martyred
girl killed under Marcus Aurelius
5th persecution
Septimius Severus
6th persecution
Maximinus Thrax
7th persecution
Decius: required everyone to obtain a sacrifice certificate; worst of first six
Origen martyred
under Decius
8th persecution
Valerian; worse than 7th
Cyprian of Carthage
martyred under Valerian
9th persecution
Aurelian; started this persecution but was murdered shortly thereafter by own soldiers.
10th and greatest persecution
Diocletian and Maximian
Jupiter incarnate
Diocletian demanded to be worship as this
allowed toleration for the Christians
Gave Edict of Milan
constantine I
church fathers
able men raised up by God to expound on Scriptures, defend the faith, and champion the cause of Christ
attempted to resonably defend Christian faith
Pupils of John
Ignatius, Polycarp, and Papias
Clement of Rome
writer who was commended by Paul in the N.T.
2 apologists of the early church
Aristides & Justin Martyr
wrote Address to the Greeks
wrote against Gnosticism in his book: Against all heresies
was the against the heresy of Monarchianism
denied doctrine of Trinity
first person to use the term "trinity"
most learned man in the early church and wrote the first book of systematic theology
argued the true deity of Christ at the coucil of Nicaea
translated the scriptures from Hebrew and Greek to the latin vulgate(common language)
Augustine of Hippo
greatest of all church fathers...wrote two books: city of God and confessions
statement of belief
two major creeds
apostle's creed and nicene creed
false belief that denied the deity of Christ
constantine's empire
church blended with the government
made Christianity the only legal faith
Roman empire divided into East and West/ byzantium renamed constantinople and made capital of Eastern Roman (byzantine) empire
Reign of Alexius Comnensus/ beginning of Crusades
Capture of Constantinople by Ottoman Turks/ end of Byzantine Empire
Justinian I
first emperor of Byzantine Empire; wanted to restore Rome's glory
gifted general of Justinian; made great war conquests
Hagia Sophia
means holy wisdom
the portion of the world in which Christianity was the dominant religion
Justinian's greatest acheivement
combined roman law with Biblical principles (Justinian code)
Empress Theodora
wife of Justinian I
Invaded Italy from west
Lombards and Normans
invaded north
Avars, Bulgars, and Russian Slavs
invaded from east
Emporer Heraclius
defeated Avars and Persians; divided empire into themes
saved Constantinople form Arab(muslims) attacks; used "greek fire"
Iconoclastic Controversy
argument whether or not people should worship icons: pictures or sculptures of mary, Jesus, and the saints
2nd council of nicaea made icons legal
Basil I
Macedonian man who led Byzantium back to power
Basil II
under this emperor the Byzantium empire was at its greatest height since Justinian the Great
after Basil II died
Byzantium empire fell to ruin
Seljuk Turks
came from central Asia and became fanatical Muslims
Battle of manzikurt; seljuk turks victory
Emperor Alexius Comnensus
wanted to rid 'infidels'; started crusades
Fourth Crusade; crusaders form Venice led French crusaders and sacked Constantinople
ottomans ruled empire
Constantine XI
last byzantine emperor
Mohammed II
led Turks to capture Constantinople on May 29, 1453
Eastern Orthodox Church
developed after the split of the Roman Empire
roman churches officially split
Greek liturgy
senuous ritual service
Orthodox Church
Eastern roman church
doctrinely correct
2 byzantine missionaries
cyril & methodius
apostle to the slavs
carried E. orthodoxy to bulgars, moravians, and slavs in 9th century
Cyrillic alphabet
developed by cyril, based on Greek alphabet *became the foundation for russian and slavic alphabets
Byzantine church's greatest contribution
the preservation of the Greek New Testament
Byzantine text
basis for the 1611 king james version
Treaty of Verdun divides Carolingian Empire
Henry the Fowler begins Saxon line of German kings
Council of Toulouse forbids possesion of the Bible among laymen.
"Babylonian captivity" of the papacy
Church of Rome
superior of all churches
declared in 175 that every church must agree with the Church of Rome
"overseer" or "superintendent"
Dark Ages
period of time that was dark culturally with a lack of progress
pagan influence
caused corruption from within
apostolic succession
all of authority from Christ had been passed down the line to bishops
apostolic authority
the belief that apostles had the same authority as Christ
Petrine theory
Christ --> Peter --> roman bishop
Pope Leo I
defeated Atilla and the Huns and the Vandals by reasoning with them
Pope Gelasius I
issued doctrine of "two swords"
Pope Gregory I
the first medieval pope
Saint Patrick
used shamrock as a representation of the trinity
transfer of grace/ rituals to obtain grace
cut off from the church/ meant they could not go to heaven
belief that the bread and juice literally becomes actual body and blood of Christ
artifacts (man made) ordinary object given significance and considered to have special powers
certificates sold from the pope to shorten time spent in purgatory
considered her to be a mediator and redeemer
good works
john wycliffe and peter waldo
stood against false teachings of the church
service and worship book of the church
relihious communities isolated from the rest of society
first great Frankish military and political leader, inherited the position of tribal king form his father; professed Christianity; baptized on Christmas day with 3,000 of his soldiers
Merovingian kings
"do-nothing" kings
mayor of the palace
ruled kingdom during the reign of the merovingian kings
Charles Martel
(the hammer) saved western europe in 732 from the muslims at the battle of tours
Pepin the short
pope crowned him king and he defeated Lombards for the pope
Donation of Pepin
when pepin gives Lombard's land to pope and it becomes papal states
Charlemagne (charles the great)
empire was the largest since the roman empire; wanted to be a Christian emperor; crowned Charles Augustus and Emperor of the Romans onChristmas day 800
Louis the Pious
charlemagne's son; never reached the glory of his father.
Treaty of Verdun
empire was divided between; Lothair the Elder, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German
Scourge of Europe; nomadic people from Asia
invaded North Africa. (muslim)
Norsemen from north who dwelt in Scandinavia and pillaged churches for their wealth.
began to piece the empire back together
Otto the great
unites Germany, France, and Italy; crowned Emperor of the romans in 962
medieval papacy
papacy was the single most powerful institution in western Europe for 250 years
became Pope Gregory VII and desired Christendom
lay investiture
controversy between pope Gregory VII and Henry IV about who had the power to appoint church officials
Pope Innocent III
helped the papacy attain the zenith of its power; and he excommunicated King John and place and interdict on his kingdom
Philip the Fair
levyed 50% taxes on the French clergy's annual income.
Pope Boniface VIII
excommunicated Philip the Fair and then was arrested by him.
official decree by the pope
Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy
when Pope Clement V moved the papal court to Avignon, France
Great Schism
the rivalry between popes and cardinals over the election of popes