19 terms

Biology Ch. 6--Section 1-3

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

somatic cell
cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes
gamete
sex cell; an egg or sperm cell
homologous chromosome
chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
autosome
chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
sex chromosome
chromosome that directly controls development of sexual characteristics
sexual reproduction
process by which 2 gametes fuse an offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
fertilization
fusion of an egg and sperm cell
diploid
a cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm
haploid
a cell that has one copy of each chromosome
meiosis
form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction
gametogenesis
process by which the metes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
sperm
male gamete
egg
female gamete
polar body
haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate
trait
characteristic that is inherited
genetics
study of the heredity patterns and variation of organisms
purebred
type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
cross
mating of two organisms
law of segregation
Mendel's first law, stating that organisms inherit 2 copies of genes, one from each parent, and organisms donate only 1 copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation