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Exam 3 Material
Terms in this set (28)
What are the dimensions that make up the attachment dimensional model?
Attachment Anxiety and Attachment Avoidance
degree to which person worries that their attachment figure won't be available/actively responsive in times of need
extent to which an individual distrusts their attachment figures availability and strives to maintain autonomy and emotional distance from them
What does previous research indicated about the information processing of those who are securely attached?
securely attached persons openly process all attachment related information including negative information
What did Kirch and Cassidy study reveal about eye-tracking and attachment classification?
Avoidantly attached: looked away from all attachment drawings, insecure-avoidant: looked away more often from positive attachment drawings
What were the hypothesis corresponding to task 1 in the paper's study?
anxious-avoidant: less viewing time, less attention, less visits to mother's neutral face. securely attached: open processing of attachment information
What were the hypothesis corresponding to task 2 in the paper's study?
insecurely attached:exclude positive and negative expressions, less attention to mother's face. Securely attached: openly process emotional faces, longer viewing time
What was the content of the photos that subjects look at?
8 pictures (7 unfamiliar women, 1 mother), task 1=neutral face, task 2=emotional expressions
What 3 eye tracking measures were calculated?
Total viewing time, Maintained attention, Relative visit frequency
What differences between secure and avoidant participants were found?
Avoidant Attached-less fixation on mother, less visits on mother. Securely attached-more fixation on mother, more maintained attention on mother
In their discussion, how do the authors interpret the responses of anxious participants to task 2?
reduced maintained attention, strategies related with attachment anxiety, defensively exclude information that will lead to fear
Can you list the neural systems that support attachment?
auditory, olfactory, visual sensory, memory process
Is there a one-to-one correspondence between neural circuits and behavioral system?
NO, difficult to associate
coordinated neural inputs and signaling targets among a population of neutrons that form a circuit
set of behaviors associated with common causal antecedent and consequence
Why would dopamine facilitate proximity seeking?
facilitation of goal-directed behavior, reinforcing stimuli and experience of pleasure, increase probability of coming into contact with reinforcement
What is the amygdala's role in formation long-term memories?
associated with recall of emotionally salient information, tags sensory experiences as significant or salient, works with hippocampus
In what 2 ways is the prefrontal cortex associated with attachment processes?
1-medial orbits encode conditioned/automatic responses to attachment figures and threat cues, 2-dorsolateral circuits (cognitive operations associated with attachment figures in reflective working memory)
Emotional Constituents in Combination (Systems)
domanine, VTA, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, PFS
Emotional Constituents in Combination (Example)
Encounter with attractive potential mate, elicits pleasureable feelings and increases incentive motivation, amygdala tags as salient, VTA conditioned, PFC and information
What roles do the Locus coeruleus and the amygdala play in an infant's tolerance of aversive care from a parent?
LC and amygdala interact to facilitate familiarity and reinforcement associated with caregiver in filial bonding, LC releases norepinephrine in early development
How does the dopaminergic system and the neruopeptides, oxytocin, and vasopressin distinguish matin behavior from partner preference? How does the research with voles demonstrate this?
associated with formation of partner preference regardless of mating behavior and elected by positive social behaviors, voles-rich in oxytocin receptors and vasopressin, oxytocin and vasopressin in VTA stimulate dopaminergic activity linked to incentive motivation, degree of oxytocin and vasopressin activity may determine degree to which social experience is rewarding
what maternal behaviors have been linked to security in previous research?
responsive to vocalizations and distress signal, synchronous interaction, appropriate responsiveness and pacing of interactions, hold often and interrupt less
What has previous research suggested about a parents's believes in his or her self-efficacy as a parent?
beliefs can impact response, influence how much and what she attends to, effort and emotional responsiveness--belief of child responding leads to investing in effective strategies, perceived self-efficacy determines whether or not to respond effectively
What characteristics were coded for extremely sensitive mothers?
initiates/motivates child play, reinforces child activities, draws child into joint activity, encouragement, high levels of enjoyment
What characteristics were coded for extremely insensitive mothers?
does not initiate/motivate child's play, does not reinforce child's activities, does not draw child into joint activity, emotionally unavailable, does not provide affective reinforcement
What infant behaviors (temperament dimensions) were correlated with security?
Higher PAS and ORC predicts greater attachment security, infant positive emotionality
How did the authors explain the positive relationship between negative emotionality and attachment security using a "developmental lens"?
1st several months: negative emotionality characterized by early forms of distress, later fear and irritability, data collected during period when anger responses decreasing, NE less important this early (4 months) in development of attachment
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