42 terms

chpt 17


Terms in this set (...)

disease-impaired function of the body with characteristic set of symptoms
An alteration in body function resulting in a reduction of capacities or shortening of the normal life span.
infectious disease- those caused by agents known as pathogens
illness passed from one organism to another. The four possible ways are through direct contact with another person, a contaminated object, an infected animal, or an environmental science
chronic disease- type of disease where it slowly impairs the functioning of the body
example- heart disease and most cancers
acute disease-Disease having a rapid onset and relatively short duration
example- ebola and flu
epidemic- when a pathogen causes a rapid increase in a disease
pandemic- when a epidemic occurs over a large geographic region such as a entire continent
have been historically important
plague- is caused by infection from a bacterium by fleas that attach to rodents
Disease that speeds quickly and kills many people
malaria- caused by an infection from any protists
it is a parasite that bites you popular in africa in misquotes
tuberculosis- contagious disease caused by bacterium that infects the lungs
spread when a person coughs and the bacteria gets into the air
emergent infectious diseases- each year one disease is added
An infectious disease that has not been previously described or has not been common for at least 20 years.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome- weak immune system caused by HIV
long term immunosuppression of the host.The most notable of this is HIV which causes AIDS.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus- spread through sexual contact and drug users
the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
ebola hemorrhagic fever- kills many who come in contact
a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus
mad cow disease- neurological disease and ruins brain
A disease in which prions mutate into deadly pathogens and slowly damage a cow's nervous system.
bird flu- spanish flu comes from contact with birds
Avian Influenza (H1N1)
west nile virus- lives in birds and transmitted by mosquitos
A mosquito-borne febrile disease that is often serious and potentially fatal. It appears to be established as a seasonal epidemic in North America that flares up in the summer and continues into the fall.
prion- causes mad cow disease
Are infectious proteins responsible for several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and other animals.
neurotoxins- chemicals that disrupt the nervous system of animals like insecticides
special class of metabolic poisons that specifically attack nerve cells
carcinogen- cancer causing agents
damage DNA of cells, exs-chemotherapeutic agents, cigarettes, foodcoloring/preservatives
mutagens- carcinogens that cause damage to the genetic material of the cell
a chemical or physical phenominon that can cause a mutation in thenDNA such as cancer.
teratogen- chemicals that interfere with the development of embryos to fetuses
Radiation, a drug, or other substance capable of altering fetal development in nonheritable ways that cause birth defects.
allergens- can cause abnormally high response from immune system
a substance that causes an allergic reaction
endocrine disruptors-chemicals that interfere with the normal functioning of the hormones
chemicals that interfere with endocrine (or hormone system) in animals, including humans. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Specifically, they are known to cause learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disorder, cognitive and brain development problems, deformations of the body (including limbs)
dose-response studies- expose animals or plants to differing amounts of a chemical then observe a variety of possible responses including mortality changes in behavior or reproduction
A study that exposes organisms to difierent amounts of a chemical and then observes a variety of possible responses, including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction
acute studies- last only 1 to 4 days
do this for efficiency
LD50- a lethal dose that kills 50 percent of the individuals
Dose that produces a lethal effect in 50% of the subjects
sublethal effects- harmful effects that alter behavior of individual
this is the ED50
ED50- shows that 50% of population show effects
An abbreviation for the effective dose of a chemical that causes 50 percent of the individuals in a dose-response study to display a harmful, but nonlethal, effect
chronic studies- often last when the organism is very young to when it is old enough to reproduce
studies of longer durations
epidemiology- field of science that strives to understand the causes of illness and disease in human population
a research approach that focuses on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders and the factors that influence those patterns
retrospective studies- monitor people who have been exposed to chemical sometime in the past
studying participants with a disease and tracing behaviors to determine cause
prospective studies- monitor people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future
Start at the present time and monitor groups of people into the future to see what diseases they develo
synergistic interactions- two risks together cause more harm than the risks seperate
Interaction of two or more factors or processes so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their separate effects
routes of exposure- ways in which an individual might come into contact with a chemical
most chemicals have a limited number of major routes
solubility- the movement of chemicals in a environment depends on this
the ability to disinegrate onto smaller particles
biomagnification- increase in chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food train
accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain
persistence- how long the chemical remains in the environment
how often it occurs and how much distress it causes
environmental hazard- anything in our environment that can potentially cause harm
include substances such as pollutants and other contaminants
innocent-until-proven-guilty principle- a potential hazard should not be considered a hazard until the scientific data can demonstrate that it causes harm
assumes substance is harmless until shown to be harmful (USA)
precautionary principle- when a hazard is plausible but not yet certain we should take action to reduce or remove the hazard
When a threat is of serious environmental damage, we should not wait for scientific proof before taking action.
stockholm convention- agreement that produced a list of 12 chemicals to be banned
made the 12 dirty dans
REACH- registration evaluation authorization and restriction of chemicals
embraces the precautionary principle