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the amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group, and amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable side chain; serves as the monomer of proteins
a biological molecule consisting of simple single- monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides), and other multi-unit sugars (polysaccharides)
a chemical process in which a polymer forms when monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules, on molecule of water is removed for each pair of monomers lined, a dehydration reaction is the opposite of a hydrolysis reaction, turning monosaccharides into polysaccharides
DNA > deoxyribonucleic acid
the genetic material that organisms inherit form their parents; a double stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T)
a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means, scientist recognize 92 chemical elements occurring in nature
glucose > C6H12O6
sugar, a monosaccharide produced in photosynthesis, used in cellular respiration to make ATP (energy)
a complex, extensively branched polysaccharide made up of many glucose monomer; serves as an energy-storage molecule in the liver and muscle cells, a polysaccharide, how animals store glucose, stored in muscles and liver
a type of weak chemical bond formed when a partially positive hydrogen atom from one polar molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom in another molecule (or in another part of the same molecule)
a chemical process in which macro molecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds liking their monomers; and essential part of digestion, a hydrolysis reaction is the opposite of a dehydration reaction
any compound lacking carbon atoms, or if present is ionically bond to other atoms, examples are: H2O, O2, CO2, and NaCl
an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more elections, thus acquiring an electrical charge
an attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges, the electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together
kinds of proteins
proteins include: structural proteins, storage proteins, contractile proteins, transport proteins, and enzymes
an organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non-polar covalent bonds and therefore mostly hydrophobic and insoluble in water, lipids includes fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids
a giant molecule in a living organism, examples include proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids
the smallest kind of sugar molecule, a single-unit sugar, also known as a simple sugar, monosaccharides are the building block of more complex sugars and polysaccharides
a chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells, rich carbon compounds, only made up of three or more CHONPS
a measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in the value from 0, most acidic, to 14, most basic, and water being 7, neutral
a carbohydrate polymer consisting of many monosaccharides, sugars, linked by a covalent bond
the expression of intermolecular attraction at the surface of a liquid, in contact with air or another gas, a solid, or another immiscible liquid, tending to pill the molecules of the liquid inward form the surface
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