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a substance that increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution

activation energy

the amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start

amino acid

an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group, and amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable side chain; serves as the monomer of proteins


the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element


a substance that decreases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution


a biological molecule consisting of simple single- monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides), and other multi-unit sugars (polysaccharides)

covalent bond

an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons

dehydration syntheses

a chemical process in which a polymer forms when monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules, on molecule of water is removed for each pair of monomers lined, a dehydration reaction is the opposite of a hydrolysis reaction, turning monosaccharides into polysaccharides

DNA > deoxyribonucleic acid

the genetic material that organisms inherit form their parents; a double stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T)


a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means, scientist recognize 92 chemical elements occurring in nature

glucose > C6H12O6

sugar, a monosaccharide produced in photosynthesis, used in cellular respiration to make ATP (energy)


a complex, extensively branched polysaccharide made up of many glucose monomer; serves as an energy-storage molecule in the liver and muscle cells, a polysaccharide, how animals store glucose, stored in muscles and liver

hydrogen bond

a type of weak chemical bond formed when a partially positive hydrogen atom from one polar molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom in another molecule (or in another part of the same molecule)


a chemical process in which macro molecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds liking their monomers; and essential part of digestion, a hydrolysis reaction is the opposite of a dehydration reaction

inorganic compound

any compound lacking carbon atoms, or if present is ionically bond to other atoms, examples are: H2O, O2, CO2, and NaCl


an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more elections, thus acquiring an electrical charge

ionic bond

an attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges, the electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together

kinds of lipids

lipids include: fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids

kinds of proteins

proteins include: structural proteins, storage proteins, contractile proteins, transport proteins, and enzymes


an organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non-polar covalent bonds and therefore mostly hydrophobic and insoluble in water, lipids includes fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids


a giant molecule in a living organism, examples include proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids


the smallest kind of sugar molecule, a single-unit sugar, also known as a simple sugar, monosaccharides are the building block of more complex sugars and polysaccharides

organic compound

a chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells, rich carbon compounds, only made up of three or more CHONPS


stands for potential hydrogen and refers to the concentration of hydrogen ion (H+)

pH scale

a measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in the value from 0, most acidic, to 14, most basic, and water being 7, neutral


a molecule containing polar covalent bonds, having opposite charges on opposite ends


a carbohydrate polymer consisting of many monosaccharides, sugars, linked by a covalent bond


a biological polymer constructed from amino acid monomers


a substance that is dissolved in a solution


the dissolving agent in solution, water is the most versatile known solvent

surface tension

the expression of intermolecular attraction at the surface of a liquid, in contact with air or another gas, a solid, or another immiscible liquid, tending to pill the molecules of the liquid inward form the surface

water >H20

regarded as the universal solvent, polar, neutral, has a high heat capacity, primarily due to its chemical and physical properties, it is one of the substances essential to life, occurs in carious forms such as gas (water vapor) and solid (ice)

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