25 terms

Chapter 5

information processing
the methods by which we take in, analyze, store, and retrieve material
modal model
The three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
working memory
Second stage of short-term memory; in it attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on material
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
primacy effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
recency effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.
free recall
learning procedure in which material that has been learned may be repeated in any order
serial position
remembering things at the beginning and end are easy, but things in the middle are difficult
memory rehearsal
repeating information to oneself to remember it. first strategy to appear in early school years.
incidental learning
Learning without trying to learn, and often without awareness that learning is occurring.
intentional learning
Placing new information into memory in anticipation of being tested on it later.
operation span
An experimental procedure used to measure someone's working memory capacity. In this procedure, participants are asked to memorize one set of items while "operating on" a different task.
articulatory rehearsal loop
one of the low-level assistants hypothesized as part of the working-memory system; this loop draws on sub-vocalized (covert) speech, which serves to create a record in the phonological buffer; materials in this buffer then fade, but they can be refreshed by another cycle of covert speech, with this cycle being initiated by working memory's central executive
visuospatial buffer
one of the low-level assistants used as part of the working memory system; this buffer plays an important role in storing visual or spatial representation, including visual images
goal neglect
relying on the habitual responses even if those responses will not move the person towards his assigned goal in a particular task
The tendency to repeat a response inappropriately; often a result of deficits in executive control caused by prefrontal lesions.
maintenance rehearsal
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
relational rehearsal
a form of mental processing in which one thinks about the relations, or connections, between ideas; this rehearsal will later guide memory sear
episodic memory
memory of personal experiences
semantic memory
The part of declarative memory that stores general information such as names and facts.
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
encoding specificity
theory stating that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of the cues present when the memory was encoded and when the memory is retrieved
peg-word systems
items are "hung" on a system of already well known "pegs" (one is a bun, two is a shoe)