obligate intracellular parasites (hypotrophs.tend to be host specific,and are often categorized according to the type of organisms they infect.
A complete virus particle as it exists outside of its host is called a_______. a virus is the infective form.
the science or study of viruses
A virus that infects bacteria is called a____________meaning bacteria eater
a virus that infects E. coli is called a
nucleic acid core
can be either DNA or RNA (double stand complimenaty and anti parellel or single-stranded) can be ccc-dna or linerar. may be 1 segment or many genes 4-400.
The protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid core of a virus is called a____________-
capsid is made of units called___________
Capsomers are made up of smaller units called
additional layer, outside their protein capsid,made of protein and lipids like those found in cell membranes
Just below the nucleocapsid is a collar, and below that the tail core surrounded by a tail sheath. At the base of the tail core is a structure called a base plate, equipped with tail pins and tail fibers
Bacteriophages can be divided into two categories
cytolytic bacteriophage temperate
is one that causes cell lysis, so kills its host
(avirulent or asymptomatic) bacteriophage does not kill its host (at least not right away
incorporate itself into the chromosome of its host.
T-even coliphages Life Cycle:
The binding of a virus to the cell surface of its host is called_______.nteraction between the tail fibers of the virus and receptors on the host cell surface (viruses are host specific). then tail pins attach
the viral nucleic acid core enters the host cell via the hollow tail core
Latent period III
the viral nucleic acid is transcribed and translated.The viral genome is transcribed in segments or in a sequence as follows:
Immediate early phage genes
enzymes used to transcribe viral DNA., and enzymes chop us the hosts cells dna
Delayed early phage genes
These genes encode enzymes used to replicate the viral genome. hundred of times
Late phage genes
These genes encode the proteins needed to build the viral capsid and the tail assembly
Assembly or maturation IV
the viral components are assembled (put together) to form new virions.
Some of the proteins come together by themselves and others require assistance from other proteins called
new virions are released into the environment
A temperate phage known as_______.These bacteriophages can reside within the host without causing damage, and may become incorporated into the host chromosome, i.e., can exist as prophages.
has a double-stranded DNA genome that may be represented as a loop being closed by overlapping cohesive termini called a a cosmid
is expressed. This gene codes for a repressor protein that can block the transcription of the viral lytic genes.
gene of E. coli codes for a proteolytic enzyme that catalyses the cleavage and inactivation of the cI repressor protein. The RecA gene is activated when the E. coli cells are stressed
The presence of viral genes within a bacterial population will sometimes result in_____
the phenotype of the bacteria is influenced by the expression of viral genes. This phenomenon is referred to as
A characteristic of bacteria that is often attributed to the expression of viral genes is ___ _-
A bacterium that is carrying a prophage may be referred to as a
all viruses should be classified according to their own, shared properties rather than according to the organisms they infected
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
is a diploid, single-stranded RNA type virus known as a retrovirus because it has the ability to reverse transcribe the information of its viral genome from RNA into DNA
primary targets is T4 lymphocytes
After the virus nucleocapsid enters the host, the capsid is removed (uncoating occurs) and the viral genome is released within the cytoplasm of the host cell
(RNA dependent DNA polymerase), also contained within the viral capsid, then causes the viral RNA to be reverse transcribed into DNA
Once the viral genome has been converted into a DNA format, it can become integrated into the chromosome of its host to form a
The integration of the viral DNA into the host cell chromosome requires a second enzyme, also coded for by the viral genome, called
The virus particles exit the host cell by means of a process called
are plant pathogens made up of short, circular, single-stranded RNA molecules (usually around 246-375 bases in length) that are not surrounded by a protein coat
Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles,can be transmitted through ingestion