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25 terms

Perception

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Sensation
The experience you have when some outside stimulus, such as light, sound, or physical pressure, reaches one of your sensory organs and is then relayed to your brain.
Perception
Refers to the experience you have when you organize sensations into some meaningful pattern. This also involves, learning, memory, beliefs and motivational factors.
top-down-processing
perceiver selects based on past knowledge; the use of contextual information or knowledge of a pattern in order to organize parts of the pattern.
bottom-up-processing
Attending to new stimuli that gets our attention: the organization of the parts of a pattern to recognize, or form an image of, the pattern they compose.
Structuralists
Believe that perceptions could be dissected into individual elements.
Gestalt Psychologists
Perceptions should be viewed wholistically, they are often more than the sum of their parts.
Principles of Perceptual Organization
Figure and the ground, simplicity, similarity, continuity, closure.
Figure and Ground
Figure dominates the center of attention and the ground recedes into the background; figure-mire detail; ground-less detail.
Simplicity
We tend to organize material into the simplest way possible.
Similarity
We tend to organize elements that appear similar.
Proximity
We tend to see as groups those objects that are physically close together.
Continuity
We tend to perceive a series of points or lines along a smooth or continuous path.
Closure
The tendency to fill in missing parts of a figure and see the figure as complete.
Perceptual Constancies
Size, shape, brightness, and color constancies. The tendency to see an object as retaining in actual shape no matter what angle it is viewed from.
The importance of constancies
Perceptual constancies give the world a sense stability. Threshold, subliminal perception, and esp.
Perceptual Thresholds
How intense does a stimulus have to be before it will be perceived?
Classical Threshold Theory
This theory assumes that for any type of stimulus, such as light or sound, there is an absolute level below which a particular person can no longer perceive that stimulus.
Absolute Threshold
The lowest level of stimulus energy needed in order for that stimulus to be perceived. Since this level varies from person to person and certain other conditions, an absolute threshold is often declined as the stimulus intensity a given, individual can detect 50% of the time.
The Concept of Just Noticeable Difference
The increase of decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person can manage to detect.
Subliminal Perception
Wholistic way of seeing versus analytic. Below the level of conscious awareness but still able to perceive unconsciously.
Extrasensory Perception
Any perception that supposedly occurs outside normal sensory processes. Psychologists are not convinced any of these exist- however some research is being conducted that may not preclude the existence of some anomalous human experience that cannot be tested in the laboratory.
Precognition
foretelling the future.
Telepathy
transfering thoughts from one person to another or reading the thoughts of others.
Clairvoyance
Perceiving events or objects for which there is no sensory stimulation.
Psychokinesis
Mentally influencing the movement of objects.