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197 terms

Nutrition Midterm

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Carbohydrate
a class of nutrients that is a major source of energy for the body
Monosaccharide
simple sugar that is the basic molecule of a carb
Disaccharide
simple sugar comprised of two monosaccharides
Glucose
monosaccharide that is a primary fuel for muscles and other cells; "dextrose" or "blood sugar"
Fructose
monosaccharide in fruits, honey, and certain vegetables; "levulose" or "fruit sugar"
Galactose
monosaccharide that is a component of lactose
Maltose
disaccharide comprised of two glucose molecules; "malt sugar"
Sucrose
disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a fructose molecule; "table sugar"
Lactose
disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a galactose molecule; "milk sugar"
Nutritive Sweetener
sweetener that contributes energy to foods
Added Sugars
sugars and syrups added to foods during processing or preparation
Alternative Sweeteners
substances that sweeten foods while providing few or no kilocalories
Nonnutritive Sweeteners
group of synthetic compounds that are intensely sweet tasting compared to sugar
Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
compound comprised of ten or more monosaccharides bonded together
Starch
storage polysaccharide in plants
Glycogen
storage polysaccharide in animals
Dietary Fiber
indigestible plant material; most types are polysaccharides
Soluble Fiber
forms of dietary fiber that dissolve or swell in water
Insoluble Fiber
forms of dietary fiber that generally do not dissolve in water
Salivary Amylase
enzyme secreted by salivary glands that begins starch digestion
Pancreatic Amylase
enzyme secreted by pancreas that breaks down starch into maltose molecules
Sucrase
enzyme that splits sucrose molecule
Lactase
enzyme that splits lactose molecule
Insulin
hormone that helps regulate blood glucose levels
Glucagon
hormone that helps regulate blood glucose levels
Glycogenolysis
glycogen breakdown
Lipolysis
fat breakdown
Ketones
chemicals that result from incomplete fat breakdown
Diabetes Mellitus
group of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose, fat, and protein metabolism
Hyperglycemia
abnormally high blood glucose level
Glycemic Index (GI); Glycemic Load (GL)
standards that indicate that body's insulin response to a carbohydrate-containing food
Satiety
feeling that enough food has been eaten to delay that next eating episode and/or reduce subsequent food intake
Hypoglycemia
condition that occurs when the blood glucose level is abnormally low.
Epinephrine
hormone produced by the adrenal glands; also called adrenaline
Metabolic Syndrome
condition that increases the risk of type two diabetes and CVD
Syndrome
group of signs and symptoms that occur together and indicate a specific health problem
Lactose Intolerance
inability to digest lactose properly
Diverticula
abnormal, tiny sacks that form in wall of colon
Diet
typical pattern of food choices
Nutrition
scientific study of nutrients, chemicals that are in food that are necessary for life
Nutrients
life-sustaining substances in food.
Chemistry
study of the composition and characteristics of matter and changes that can occur to it
Cell
smallest functioning structural unit in a living organism
Metabolism
Chemical processes that take place in living cells
Essential Nutrient
Nutrient that must be supplied by food
Deficiency Disease
state if health that occurs when a nutrient is missing from the diet
Fiber
group of substances made by plants that humans do not digest but provide some health benefits
Phytochemicals
compounds made by plants made by plants that are not nutrients
Antioxidant
substance that protects other compounds from being damaged or destroyed by certain environmental factors
Dietary Supplements
nutrient preparations; certain hormones; and herbal products that are loosely regulated by the FDA
Risk Factor
personal characteristic that increases a person's chances of developing a disease
Lifestyle
way of living
Obesity
condition characterized by excess body fat
kilocalorie or Calorie
heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius; measure of food magazine
Macronutrients
nutrients needed in gram amounts daily and that provide energy; carbohydrates, proteins and fats
Micronutrients
vitamins and minerals
Empty Calorie
describes food or beverage that is a poor source of micronutrients in relation to its energy value
Nutrient-dense
describes food or beverage that has more vitamins and minerals in relation to its energy value
Energy density
energy value of a food in relation to the food's weight
moderation
obtaining adequate amounts of nutrients while balancing calorie intake with calorie expenditure
Physiological dose
amount of a nutrient that is within the range of safe intake and enables the body to function optimally
Megadose
generally defined as 10 times the recommended amount of a vitamin or mineral
Malnutrition
state of health that occurs when the body is improperly nurished
Hypothesis
possible explanation about an observation that guides scientific research
Anecdotes
personal reports of experiences
Variable
personal characteristic or other factor that changes and can influence an outcome
Epidemiology
study of disease rates among different population groups
Case-control study
type of study in which individuals who have a health condition are compared with individuals who have similar characteristics but do not have the condition
Prospective Study
type of study that follows a group of healthy people over time to determine characteristics associated with the development of diseases
Treatment or Experimental Group
group being studied that receives a treatment
Control group
group being studied that receives a placebo
Retrospective study
type of study that determines factors that may have contributed to the development of disease
Correlation
relationship between variables
Placebo
fake treatment, such as a sham pill, injection, or medical procedure
Placebo effect
response to a placebo
Double-blind study
experimental design in which neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participant's assignment
Peer review
expert critical analysis of a research article prior to its publication
Testimonial
personal endorsement of a product
Pseudoscience
presentation of information masquerading as factual and obtained by scientific methods
Quackery
promotion of useless medical treatments
Requirement
smallest amount of a nutrient that maintains a defined level of health
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
various energy and nutrient intake standards for Americans
Food and Nutrient Board
group of nutrition scientists who develop DRIs
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of 50% of healthy people in a life stage/gender group
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
standards for recommending daily intakes of several nutrients
Adequate Intakes (AIs)
dietary recommendations that assumes a population's average daily nutrient intakes are adequate because no deficiency diseases are present
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (Upper Level or UL)
standard representing the highest average amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to be harmful when consumed daily
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
average daily energy intake that meets the needs of a healthy person maintaining his or her weight
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)
macronutrient intake ranges that are nutritionally adequate and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases
Enrichment
addition of iron and certain B vitamins to cereal and grain products
Fortification
addition of nutrients to food
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
set of general nutrition-related lifestyle recommendations, Dietary Guidelines, published by the USDHHS and USDA
MyPyramid Plan
USDA's interactive Internet menu planning and physical activity guide
Discretionary calorie allowance
daily amount of energy remaining after a person consumes recommended amounts of low-fat or no added-sugar foods from the major food groups
Exchange System
method of classifying foods into numerous lists based on macronutrient composition
Daily Values (DVs)
set of nutrient intake standards developed for labeling purposes
Organic foods
foods produced without the use of antibiotics, hormones, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic improvements, or spoilage-killing radiation
Protons
positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom
Electrons
small negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus of an atom
Element
each type of atom; under ordinary conditions, a substance that cannot be broken down into distinctive components
Minerals
elements that are found in the earth's crust
Chemical bond
attraction that holds atoms together
Molecule
matter that forms when two or more atoms interact and are held together by a chemical bond
Compounds
molecules that contain two or more different elements
Solution
evenly distributed mixture of two compounds
Solvent
primary compound of a solution
Solute
lessor component of a solution
Solubility
describes how easily a substance dissolves in a liquid solvent
Ion
atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
H+
hydrogen ion chemical formula
Electrolytes
ions that conduct electricity when they are dissolved in a solution
Acids
substances that donate hydrogen atoms
Bases
substances that accept hydrogen atoms
pH
measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Chemical reactions
process that changes the atomic arrangements of molecules
Digestion
process by which large ingested molecules are mechanically broken down
Salt
substance that forms when an acid combines with a base
Metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions occurring in living cells
Enzyme
protein that speed hat rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered during the process
Anatomy
scientific study of cells and other body structures
Physiology
scientific study of the functioning of cells and other body structures
Organelles
structures in cells that perform specialized functions
DNA
molecule that contains coded instructions for synthesizing proteins
Tissues
collection of cells that perform a specific function
Epithelial tissue
cells that line every body surface
Connective tissue
type of cells that hold together, protect, and support organs
Organ
collection of tissues that perform a specific function
Organ system
collection of organs that work together to perform a major function
Homeostasis
relatively constant internal environment in the body that is critical for good health and survival
Arteries
vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Capillaries
smallest blood vessels
Veins
vessels that return blood to the heart
Lymph
fluid in the lymphatic system
Hormones
chemical messengers that convey information to target cells
Absorption
process by which substances are taken up from the GI tract and enter the bloodstream or the lymph
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
Bioavailability
extent to which the digestive tract absorbs a nutrient and how well the body uses it
Esophagus
tubular structure of the GI tract that connects the pharynx with the stomach
Epiglottis
flap of tissue that folds down over the windpipe to keep food from entering the respiratory system during swallowing
Peristalsis
muscular contractions of the gastrointestinal tract
Gastroesophageal sphincter
section of esophagus next to the stomach that controls the opening to the stomach
Heartburn
backflow of irritating stomach contents into the esophagus
Chyme
mixture of gastric juice and partially digested food
Mucus
fluid that lubricates and protects certain cells
Duodenum
first segment of the small intestine
Jejunum
middle segment of the intestine
Ileum
last segment of the small intestine
lumen
open space within the small and large intestines
Villi (singular villus)
tiny fingerlike projections of the small intestinal lining that participate in digesting and absorbing food
Portal vein
vein that collects nutrients from the intestinal tract and delivers them to the liver
Chylomicron
lipoprotein formed by intestinal cells
Lacteal
lymph vessel in villus that absorbs most lipids
Colon
large intestine
Rectum
last section of the colon
Omnivore
organism that can digest and absorb nutrients from plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria
Hydrocarbon Chain
chain of carbon atoms bonded to each other and to hydrogen atoms
Saturated Fatty acid
fatty acid that has each carbon atom within the chain filled with hydrogen atoms
Unsaturated fatty acid
fatty acid that is missing hydrogen atoms and has one or more double bonds within the carbon chain
Monounsaturated fatty acid
fatty acid that has one double bond within the carbon chain
Polyunsaturated acid
fatty acid that has two or more double bonds within the carbon chain
Alpha-linolenic acid
essential fatty acid
Linoleic acid
essential fatty acid
Essential fatty acids
lipids that must be supplied by the diet
Omega-3 fatty acid
type of polyunsaturated fatty acid
Trans Fats
unsaturated fatty acids that have a trans double bond
Hydrogenation
food manufacturing process that adds hydrogen atoms to liquid vegetable oil forming trans fats
Triglyceride
lipid that has three fatty acids attached to a three-carbon compound called glycerol
Phospholipid
type of lipid needed to make cell membranes and for proper functioning of nerve cells
Hydrophilic
part of molecule that attracts water
Hydrophobic
part of molecule that avoids water and attracts lipids
Emulsifier
substance that helps water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds mix with each other
Choline
water-soluble compound in lecithin
Cholesterol
lipid found in animal foods and precursor for steroid hormones, bile, and vitamin D
Bile
emulsifier that aids lipid digestion
Lipases
enzymes that break down lipids
Pancreatic Lipase
digestive enzyme that removes two fatty acids from each triglyceride molecule
Monoglyceride
single fatty acid attached to a glycerol backbone
Cholecystokinin (CKK)
hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes
Chylomicron
type of lipoprotein produced in absorptive cells of small intestine
Lipoprotein
water-soluble structure that transports lipids through the bloodstream
Lipoprotein Lipase
enzyme in capitulary walls that breaks down triglycerides
Enterohepatic circulation
process that recycles cholesterol in the body
Sterols/stanols
types of lipids made by plants
Adipose cells
fat cells
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
group of diseases that effect the heart and blood vessels
Atherosclerosis
long-term disease process in which plaques build up inside arterial walls
Thrombus
fixed bunch of clots that remains in place
Myocardial infarction
heart attack
Embolus
thrombus or part of a plaque that breaks free and travels through the bloodstream
Arteriosclerosis
condition that results from atherosclerosis and is characterized by loss of arterial flexibility
Hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure levels that persist
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
lipoprotein that transports cholesterol away from tissues and to the liver, where it can be eliminated
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
lipoprotein that carries cholesterol into tissues
Very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL)
lipoprotein that carries much of the triglycerides in the bloodstream
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)
protein produced primarily by the liver in response to inflammation; a marker for CVD
Homocysteine
amino acid that plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
a major form of CVD