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Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except:
a. Creatine
b. Urobilin
c. Glucose
d. Ammonia
e. Magnesium


The minimum daily output of urine to meet the definition of polyuria is:
a. 0.5 L
b. 1.0 L
c. 1.5 L
d. 2.0 L
e. 3.0 L


What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?
a. Monochrome
b. Urochrome
c. Cyanochrome
d. Multichrome
e. Pyuria

Diabetes mellitus

Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of:
a. Diabetes insipidus
b. Acute glomerulonephritis
c. Diabetes mellitus
d. Renal calculus
e. Pyelitis

The countercurrent multiplier system

Loop diuretics reduce body water context by acting on:
a. The feedback loop between the kidney and posterior pituitary gland
b. The countercurrent multiplier system
c. The countercurrent exchanger system
d. Aquaporins of the collecting duct
e. The thirst mechanism and water intake


A hospital patient produces 4 mL. min of urine with a urea concentration of 8mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of .4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filrate?
a. 40%
b. 56%
c. 64%
d. 72%
e. 80%

inulin and creatinine

Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate?
a. insulin and glucose
b. inulin and creatinine
c. sodium and water
d. albumin and inulin
e. insulin and urea

It is secreted by the renal tubules

Creatinine has a renal clearance of 140 mL/min due to the fact that:
a. it is absorbed by the loop of Henle.
b. it is secreted by the glomerulus.
c. it is absorbed by the renal tubules.
d. it is secreted by the renal tubules.
e. it is produced in the pulmonary tissue.

Skeletal muscle

Which of the following is not found in the ureter?
a. Adventitia
b. Two layers of smooth muscle
c. Three layers of smoother muscle
d. Transitional epithelium
e. Skeletal muscle

the urinary bladder

A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct:
a. the major calyx
b. the ureter
c. the urethra
d. the urinary bladder
e. the renal pelvis


Which muscle is located in the bladder?
a. Detrusor
b. Distractor
c. Pubococcygeus
d. corpus spongiosum
e. corpus cavernosum

internal urethral sphincter

Which is not a portion of the urethra?
a. external urethral orifice
b. internal urethral sphincter
c. prostatic urethra
d. membraneous urethra
e. spongy urethra

the elimination of urine

Micturition is another term for:
a. the production of nitrogenous wastes
b. glomerular filtration
c. the countercurrent multiplier process
d. inflammation of the urinary bladder
e. the elimination of urine


Which of the following urinary tract disorders seems most likely to occur in someone who frequently participates in marathon runs?
a. osmotic dieresis
b. renal hypertension
c. cystitis
d. hematuria
e. renal calculi

renal calculi

Lithotripsy is a medical procedure used to treat
a. acute glomerulonephritis.
b. nephrotic syndrome.
c. renal calculi.
d. hydronephrosis.
e. prostatic hypertrophy.


What is the most common urinary symptom of diabetes mellitus?
a. Pyuria
b. Glycosuria
c. Hematuria
d. Albuminuria
e. Urobilinuria


Which of these induces rennin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
a. Aldosterone
b. Antidiuretic hormone
c. Parathyroid hormone
d. Norepinephrine
e. Angiotensin II

To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal medulla

The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is
a. To supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
b. To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal cortex
c. To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal medulla
d. To remove metabolic wastes from the renal cortex
e. To remove metabolic wastes from the renal medulla

Sodium; the opposite

The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ________ and is based on fluid flowing in _________ direction in two adjacent tubules
a. Potassium; the same
b. Calcium; the opposite
c. Calcium; the same
d. Sodium; the opposite
e. Sodium; the same


Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation?
a. The collecting duct
b. The countercurrent multiplier
c. The countercurrent exchange system
d. Diuretics
e. The length of the nephrons

The body's water volume is high

The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
a. The body's water volume is high
b. The body's pH is low
c. The output of antidiuretic hormone is high
d. The output of natriuretic peptides is high
e. A person is lost and deprived of drinking water

Collecting duct

Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
a. Glomerulus
b. Proximal convoluted tubule
c. Distal convoluted tubule
d. Collecting duct
e. Nephron loop

Secretion of parathyroid hormone

Hypocalcemia stimulates
a. A decrease in aldosterone production
b. Secretion of parathyroid hormone
c. Secretion of rennin
d. An increase in blood urea nitrogen
e. Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles

Proximal convoluted tubules

Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the _______ of all the nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption
a. Proximal convoluted tubules
b. Distal convolutes tubules
c. Loops of Henle
d. Collecting ducts
e. Glomeruli

Hydrogen ions

PCTs are responsible for absorbing all of the following except
a. Potassium
b. Sodium chloride
c. Hydrogen ions
d. Urea
e. Water

Appearance of that solute in the urine

Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
a. Reabsorption of all the solute
b. A renal clearance of zero
c. A net filtration pressure of 1.0
d. Appearance of that solute in the urine
e. Absence of that solute from the urine

Decreased urine volume

Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
a. Decreased urine volume
b. Decreased urine molarity
c. Increased urine volume
d. Increased urine salinity
e. Increased urine acidity

The distal convoluted tubule

Aldosterone acts on
a. The proximal convoluted tubule
b. The medullary portion of the collecting duct
c. The descending limb of the nephron loop
d. The distal convoluted tubule
e. The glomerulus

Preventing sodium loss in the urine

Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
a. Increasing glomerular filtration rate
b. Inhibiting rennin and aldosterone secretion
c. Inhibiting the action of ADH on the kidney
d. Inhibiting NaCl reabsorption by the collecting duct
e. Preventing sodium loss in the urine


Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the _______ to form angiotensin I
a. Lungs
b. Kidneys
c. Liver
d. Heart
e. Spleen

20 mm Hg out

Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mm Hg
a. 10 mm Hg out
b. 20 mm Hg out
c. 30 mm hg out
d. 40 mm Hg out
e. 50 mm Hg out

Angiotensin II

In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, _________ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
a. Azotemia
b. Sodium chloride
c. Parathyroid hormone
d. Aldosterone
e. Angiotensin II

The myogenic mechanism

The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what?
a. Renal autoregulation
b. The myogenic mechanism
c. Tubuloglomerular feedback
d. Sympathetic control
e. The rennin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism

Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole

Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
a. Vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole
b. A drop in oncotic pressure
c. Vasodilation of the afferent arteriole
d. Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
e. An increase in osmotic pressure in the glomerular capsule


In a healthy kidney, very little _________ is filtered by the glomerulus
a. Amino acids
b. Electrolytes
c. Glucose
d. Vitamins
e. Protein

The proximal convoluted tubule

Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
a. The renal corpuscle
b. The proximal convoluted tubule
c. The distal convolutes tubule
d. The glomerular capillaries
e. The collecting duct

Tubular fluid

In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as
a. Plasma
b. Glomerular filtrate
c. Tubular fluid
d. Renal filtrate
e. Medullary filtrate

Juxtamedullary nephrons

Which are primarily responsible for maintain the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
a. Cortical nephrons
b. Juxtamedullary nephrons
c. Collecting ducts
d. Proximal convoluted tubules
e. Distal convoluted tubules

The thin segment of the nephron loop

All of the following are composed of cuboidal epithelium with the exception of
a. The thin segment of the nephron loop
b. The thick segment of the nephron loop
c. The collecting duct
d. The proximal convoluted tubule
e. The distal convoluted tubule


Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
a. Macula densa cells
b. Mesangial cells
c. Nephrocytes
d. Podocytes
e. Monocytes

The renal corpuscle

Blood plasma is filtered in
a. The renal tubule
b. The renal corpuscle
c. The renal capsule
d. The renal column
e. The renal calyx

interlobular v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.

Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein?
a. interlobular v. → interlobar v. → segmental v. → renal v.
b. arcuate v. → interlobar v. → segmental v. → renal v.
c. interlobar v. → interlobular v. → arcuate v. → renal v.
d. segmental v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.
e. interlobular v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.

1.2 million

The average person has approximately __________ nephrons per kidney
a. 1.2 million
b. 2.4 million
c. 3.6 million
d. 4.8 million
e. 5.6 million


The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferebnt arteriole occurs in the
a. Glomerulus
b. Medulla
c. Cortical radiate veins
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta

Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a.

Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
a. Arcuate a. → interlobar a. → arfferent arteriole → interlobular a.
b. Interlobar a. → interlobular a. → segmental a. → arcuate a.
c. Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a.
d. Afferent arteriole → interlobular a. → arcuate a. → interlobar a.
e. Segmental a. → arcuate a. → interlobar a. → interlobular a.

The minor calyx

A renal pyramid voids urine into
a. The minor calyx
b. The major calyx
c. The renal medulla
d. The renal papilla
e. The ureter

One pyramid and the overlying cortex

A single lobe of a kidney is comprised of
a. Two calyces and a renal pelvis
b. One pyramid and the overlying cortex
c. One major calyx and all of its minor calyces
d. A renal medulla and two renal columns
e. One collecting duct and all nephrons that drain into it

The fibrous capsule

The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as
a. The perirenal fat capsule
b. The renal fascia
c. The hilum
d. The fibrous capsule
e. The renal medulla


7. A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of midback pain. X rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
a. Pyuria
b. Hematuria
c. Albuminuria
d. Uremia
e. Phenylketonuria

Collecting duct

Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system?
a. Urethra
b. Collecting duct
c. Ureter
d. Urinary bladder
e. Kidney


Human urine can have as much as _______ time the osmolarity of the blood plasma, which is why it is called hypertonic
a. 1.5
b. 2.6
c. 4.0
d. 5.8
e. 12.0

The release waste into the bloodstream

Which is not a function of the kidneys?
a. They regulate osmolarity of the body fluids
b. They fight osteoporosis by synthesizing vitamin D
c. They help control blood pressure
d. They release waste into the bloodstream
e. They indirectly increase oxyhemoglobin

The cardiovascular system

Which organ system does not excrete waste?
a. The urinary system
b. The cardiovascular system
c. The integumentary system
d. The digestive system
e. The respiratory system


This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous wastes
a. Urea
b. Creatinine
c. Uric acid
d. Azotemia
e. Ammonia

Deaminating amino acids

In life-threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by
a. Secreting erythropoietin
b. Secreting rennin
c. Deaminating amino acids
d. Contributing to calcium homeostasis
e. Producing uric acid


The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes
a. True
b. False


The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate
a. True
b. False


Glomerular capillaries suffer little damage from hypertension because of the protective influence of the afferent arterioles
a. True
b. False


Cells in the cleft between the afferent and efferent arterioles and among capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells
a. True
b. False


Angiotensin converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
a. True
b. False


Glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure
a. True
b. False


The thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water
a. True
b. False


The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function
a. True
b. False


Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol
a. True
b. False


Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria
a. True
b. False


Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct
a. True
b. False


Diseases that affect the descending corticospinal tracts may limit inhibition f the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence
a. True
b. False


Professional horse jockeys may have a greater than average risk of nephroptosis
a. True
b. False


Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus
a. True
b. False


The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below
a. True
b. False

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