APUSH Ch. 18 ID's

Popular Sovereignty
people of territory make their own decision regarding slavery;
expected to use constitutional principles;
General Lewis Cass= "father"
Free Soil Party
antislaveryites of north;
support: wilmot proviso, internal improvements, & free govt. homesteads for settlers;
opposed: extension of slavery into territories
Gold Rush
discovered in CA in 1848;
caused surge of CA population;
most miners unlucky in gold search
Placer Mining
"washing" gold out of surface deposits;
cheap but effective
Underground Railroad
journey taken by runaway slaves ("passengers");
assisted by antislavery men/women ("conductors") to the north;
Harriet Tubman
conductor of underground railroad;
runaway slave;
freed >300 slaves;
called "Moses"
Seventh of March Speech
given by Daniel Webster;
stated territory gained from Mexico was not physically suitable for slavery, but encouraged compromise from north
Compromise of 1850
suggested by Clay;
signed by Pres. Fillmore;
enacted a more feasible fugitive slave law;
lead to brief era of good feeling;
CA=free, TX=slave, NM & UT= undecided
Fugitive Slave Law
"The Bloodhound Bill"/ "Manstealing Law";
slaves unable to: testify/ have trial;
bribes for whites to keep blacks in slavery;
men who aid blacks are punished;
resulted in more antislaveryites
Election of 1852
Franklin Pierce (Dem.) vs Winfield Scott (Whig);
major issue= compromise of 1850;
whigs divided, Pierce wins;
end of whig party- national and sectional party arise
William Walker
American adventurer;
attempted to control Nicaragua;
tried to seize Baja California;
supported by southerners;
proclaimed himself Pres. of Nicaragua, but overthrown
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
disallowed UK & US from conrolling waterways
Commodore Matthew Perry
commander of American warship sent to Japan;
persuaded Japan to allow some commercial trade (1854);
begins US/Japan relationship
Ostend Manifesto
3 American ministers (Sp., GB, and FR) meet in Ostend;
secret plan= offer $120 mill. for Cuba, plan to begin war if offer declined;
plan leaked and north is angry
Gadsden Purchase
Purchase from Mexico for $10 mill. for small tract in NM;
Bought buy James Gadsden;
allowed construction of railroad through south in ideal location
Stephen Douglas
"Little Giant";
senator of IL;
Supported: westward expansion, railroad ending in Chicago, and popular sovereignty;
proposed split of Kansas & Nebraska
Kansas-Nebraska Act
proposed by Douglas;
K & N have popular sovereignty;
north unhappy causes much unrest;
repeals Missouri Compromise and ends Fugitive Slave Law
Republican Party
emerged after K-N act;
quickly popular, never "third party";
consisted of those unhappy wt/ K-N act, northerners
Lincoln is republican;