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Paul Valéry

French poet and critic that spoke of a "crisis of the mind," and "a dark future for Europe"

Friedrich Nietzsche

German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.

Georges Sorel

A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Was an Austrian philosopher and a logical empiricist who argued in Essay on Logical Philosophy that great philosophical questions like god freedom and morality were "quite literally senseless."

Henri Bergson

A French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking

Jean Paul Sartre

A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.

Søren Kierkegaard

Danish religious philosopher who made a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic god, after rejecting formalistic religion

Karl Barth

A Swiss Protestant theologian who said people were sinful and that religious truth was made know to humans only through God's grace, and people just had to accept God as true and be obedient.

Gabriel Marcel

Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics

Marie Curie

A Polish physicist who, with French husband Pierre, discovered radium emits subatomic particles

Albert Einstein

German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity

Max Planck

German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"

Werner Heisenberg

A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.

Sigmund Freud

The love of my life. Said that there were three points were man was stripped of his specialness. Copernicus said that man was not center of universe; Darwin said that man is not God's special creation; and Freud said that man is savage. Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious. His most controversial idea was that all humans are sexual beings and have sexual desires. Then he said there were three phases of human development the Oral phase, the Anal phase, and the Oedipal phase. After WWI it became ok to talk about Freud's ideas.

James Joyce

An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer's book

Oswald Spengler

an obscure German high school teacher who wrote Decline of the West, said the west was about to be conquered by Asians.

Walter Gropius

German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron

Claude Monet

a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting

Pierre Auguste Renoir

a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting

Vincent Van Gogh

A Dutch expressionist who painted a "moving visions in his mind's eye"

Paul Gaugin

French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific

Paul Cézanne

A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art and committed to form

Henrí Matisse

An extreme abstract expressionist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form

Pablo Picasso

a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes

Wassily Kandinski

Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art

Igor Stravinsky

composer, wrote Rite of Spring, expressionist ballet, shocked crowds because of music and scenes

Alban Berg

composer of opera Wozzeck, atonal music with half spoken, half sung dialogue, violence and expression

Arnold Schönberg

Viennese founder of 12 tone music and turned back on conventional tones

John Maynard Keynes

Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany.

Raymond Poincaré

French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations

Gustav Stresemann

German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr

Leon Blum

Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems

Psycho-social impact of WWI

Social Impact was impact on social class structures and breakdown of aristocracy and other inter class structures. After the war more people did not have servants. The Psycho impact was that people viewed humanity as both savage and pointless, because they just fought a pointless war

Logical Empiricism

The philosophical ideology that simply rejected the concerns of modern philosophy, like god and morality. Mainly started with Austrian philosopher Wittgenstein.


The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. Existentialism mainly influenced by Nietzsche. Existentialism sustain popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.

Christian Revival

Was a reaction to the loss of faith in humans, which came from the war, and lead to renewed interest in Christian view of the world. Major people were Kierkegaard, Barth, and Marcel.

The New Physics

Pioneered by the Curies, Plank and Einstein, a new view of physics that shattered the perfect world of Newtonian physics and made the world seem much more random and not as much certainty.

Uncertainty Principle

The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.

Id, Ego, Superego

Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious.

Oedipal Complex

A Freudian physiological idea that if you did not get over loving your parent of the opposite sex, you would have this complex where you hated your other parent and have issues with parental relations.


Literary technique that explored the psyche through different idea randomly bubbling up in a story.


A new principle of building design that focused on buildings being functional which means serving the purpose it was made for best


A Weimar (German) architectural school created by Walter Gropius which combined the fine arts and functionalism


An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing


An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.


An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.


An artistic movement that focused on expressing emotion and feelings through abstract images and colors, lines and shapes.


An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.


An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images

British-French Tensions

differences between French and British were over the treatment of the Germans, specifically on the payment of reparations

The Little Entente

The French alliance between the smaller countries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.

Ruhr Crisis 1923

When France occupied the Ruhr coal fields to demand that the German pay their reparations


When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day

Dawes Plan

The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible

Locarno Pact / Spirit of Locarno

The pact was an agreement to define the border between France and Germany, and in which Britain and Italy would gang up on the aggressor if the treaty was broken. The spirit was this feeling that war could be stopped again by peace talks that settled in Europe after the pact

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Was a pact that said that just said was bad, but did not outline any method for preventing war.

Labor-Liberal-Conservative Cooperation in Britain

The three party system that makes sure that both the conservative and the labor party don't get too radical.

Great Depression - Causes, efforts to deal with

The immediate cause was the American using margin buying to buy shares of stock that they could not pay back, and forced a mass selloff of shares, which collapsed the stock market and the economy. The efforts to deal was the New Deal in America, and different stances of social programs and socialism in Europe.

Social Democrats

The largest political party in Sweden, who pushed for social reform legislation, and drew support from community and socialist and capitalist working together.

Popular Front

was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.

The Middle Way

The Scandinavian system of in the middle of socialism and capitalism, an ideology that you can have some of your own things and keep some of your money, and have higher tax rates.

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