Test 3 INTL Violence

what is the difference between government violence (punishment) vs. repression?
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Terms in this set (29)
What is this: forced disappearancePolitically motivated kidnapppingsWhat is torturePurposeful infliction of severe pain/mental anguishWhat is political imprisonmentIncarceration because of speech, non-violent opposition, religious beliefsHow has abuse changed over time?Some have suggested that information about abuse has improved Recent research examines possibility that standards are stricter Evidence suggests that standards have changed, practices are betterFundamental conditions of legality:"Approved by relevant authorities (due process) Imposed for something that is illegal Does not exceed prescribed limitsWhat is the process of terror?Violence, emotional response, social effectWhat are things that seem to be highly correlated with state violenceEconomic development population size civil war international war democracyWhen are democracies most likely to use violence?periods of violent dissent when citizens are linked to foreign threat (during international conflict) when legal system is permissiveWhat is National Security Model?Torture common during wars/colonial wars/foreign occupationWhat is Judicial modelJudicial torture, Judicial system that privileges confessions Long pre-arrest detention periods, emphasis on confession as evidence The longer they hold you the more tempting it is to use torture mechanism to extract confession habeas corpus A legal environment, reinforced by cultural dispositions, creates an over reliance on confessionsWhat is civic discipline Model?Social status and torture torture is a result of social status (slaves in ancient Greece) understanding between police and public (will allow some torture for the greater good) ; Who is likely to be targeted by policeHow was torture justified during the first IntifadaNoticeable, short-term changes in state violence Violence (eventually) doesn't occur in public Conducted in a less violent way → tried doing it in a legally and medically justified way - professionals state that it's "safe"Why are international wars easier to end than civil warsinternational wars only require effective separation and does not require state building no election monitoring, infrastructure programs etc civil wars require for one side to completely disarm, therefore creating a credible commitment problemCredible committments problems and civil warThe state may fail to communicate credible threats, so the rebels do not expect genocidal retaliation The state communicates credible threats, so the rebels expect their group to suffer whether or not they rebelLegal definition of genocidePolicies target national/ ethnic group Intent to destroy whole/ part of group Direct bodily harm Conditions meant to destroy (e.g. famine) Preventing births Population transfers - forced mass migrationWhat are obligations under Genocide Convention~must pass domestic legislation (prosecute act of genocide in your territory) ~parties may invoke ch.7 of UN charter ~No obligation to intervene (if it take place outside of your territory)What are factors affecting risk of genocide?Duration of conflict/genocide Prior genocide Elite ideology 3 "Exclusionary" ideology secular regimes anti communist/communist regimes Regime type autocratic Economic ties to other states the more you have the less likely genocideWhat are the policy implications of these findings?the economic ties are less likely to experience genocide as we move toward a more globalized world→ less genocide conductorsAre interventions to stop mass killing effective?long term yes short term no