How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

35 terms

Module 11: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following forms of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis?
High LDL
Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except
pulmonary edema.
An unstable plaque in the coronary arteries can result in which of the following complications?
Myocardial infarction
Which of the following events initiates the process of atherosclerosis?
Endothelial injury and release of cytokines
Factors associated with endothelial injury in atherosclerosis include all of the following except
anemia
Which of the following forms of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis?
High LDL
In the development of primary hypertension, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity causes
peripheral vasoconstriction
A risk factor that is associated with atherosclerosis and primary hypertension is
advanced age
Complications of sustained hypertension include which of the following?
All of the above:Retinal damage Stroke Renal disease
Atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause isolated systolic hypertension by
decreasing arterial distensibility
Orthostatic hypotension refers to a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure when an individual
stands up
A ruptured cerebral aneurysm often will result in
stroke
Clinical manifestations of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower leg include
pain and edema in the affected limb
Individuals with Raynaud disease experience vasospasm in the small arteries of the fingers under which of the following conditions?
Cold exposure
The most common cause of coronary artery disease is
atherosclerosis
Prinzmetal angina is caused by
vasospasm
Why is myocardial ischemia usually reversible within 20 minutes of interruption of coronary blood flow?
Anaerobic metabolism maintains cellular integrity for approximately 20 minutes
Unstable angina is considered a precursor to
myocardial infarction
When a myocardial infarction occurs, the myocardial cells surrounding the infarct undergo structural and functional changes.Which one of the following changes can be observed in these tissues following a myocardial infarction?
Myocardial remodeling
Aortic stenosis results in the incomplete emptying of the
left ventricle
The most common cardiac valve disease in the United States, which tends to be most prevalent in young women, is
mitral valve prolapse
Which of the following forms of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis?
High LDL
Many valvular stenosis and regurgitation disorders in adults have a common etiology. Which of the following can result in both types of valve dysfunction?
Rheumatic heart disease
Congestive heart failure (CHF) results in which of the following intraventricular hemodynamic changes?
Increased left ventricular preload
Of the following diseases, which is the most common cause of right heart failure?
Left heart failure
Which problem is a pathophysiological consequence common to all shock states?
Hypoperfusion
In shock, how does the body maintain blood glucose levels once available glucose and glycogen stores are used up?
By breaking down protein to fuel gluconeogenesis
Which of the following shock states manifests with tachycardia, vasoconstriction, and movement of large volumes of interstitial fluid to the vascular compartment?
Hypovolemic
Which of the following shock states is (are) characterized by acute, severe bronchoconstriction?
Anaphylactic
Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except:
pulmonary edema.
Which of the following pathophysiological events causes the severe hypotension observed in neurogenic shock?
Decreased peripheral vascular resistance
Anaphylactic shock manifests with the rapid onset of which set of symptoms?
Dyspnea, hypotension, and urticaria
What is the primary cause of hypotension in early stages of septic shock?
Arterial vasodilation
Low levels of which molecule contributes to the pathophysiology of septic shock?
Activated protein C
Secondary MODS is defined as the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems resulting from:
an uncontrolled inflammatory response.