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96 terms

Anatomy Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Name all the long bones
1. humerus
2. ulna
3. metacarpals
4. femur
5. tibia
6. fibula
7. metatarsals
8. phalanges
Name all the short bones
1. carpals
2. tarsals
Name all the flat bones
1. occipital
2. parietal
3. frontal
4. zygomatic
5. nasal
6. lacrimal
7. ribs
8. sternum
9. scapula
Name all the irregular bones
1. vertebrae
2. sacrum
3. temporal
4. mandible
5. maxilla
6. ethmoid
7. sphenoid
8. pelvic
9. coccyx
10. calcaneus
Name all the seasmoid bones
1. proximal phalanges
2. patella
What makes a flat bone different?
It has two parallel plates of compact bone separated by spongy bone
What makes a seasmoid bone different?
No periosteum, encased in tendons
Humerus
long bone
appendicular
Ulna
long bone
appendicular
metacarpals
long bone
appendicular
femur
long bone
appendicular
tibia
long bone
appendicular
fibula
long bone
appendicular
metatarsals
long bone
apendicular
phalanges
long bone
appendicular
carpals
short bone
appendicular
tarsals
short bone
appendicular
occipital
flat bone
intermembraneous bone
axial
parietal
flat bone
inter membranous bone
axial
frontal
flat bone
inter membranous bone
axial
zygomatic
flat bone
nasal
flat bone
intermembraous bone
lacrimal
flat bone
intermembranous bone
ribs
flat bone
axial - thoracic cage
sternum
flat bone
axial - thoracic cage
scapula
flat bone
appendicular
vertebrae
irregular bone
thoracic vertebrae - axial
sacrum
irregular bone
axial
temporal
irregular bone
intermebranous bone (squamosal region)
axial
mandible
irregular bone
intermembranous bone
maxilla
irregular bone
intermembranous bone
ethmoid
irregular bone
sphenoid
irregular bone
pelvic
irregular bone
appendicular - os coaxe
coccyx
irregular bone
calcaneus
irregular bone
proximal phalanges
seasmoid bone
patella
seasmoid bone
intermembranous bone
Incomplete/Greentstick fracture
not broken into separate fragments
Simple fracture
does not rupture skin
Compound fracture
rupture skin
depressed fracture
forced inward into soft tissue
communited fracture
small bone fragments between two main fragments
avulsion fracture
digit, limb, tuberosity of bone torn off at articulation site
impaction fracture
epiphysis driven into diaphysis
pathological fracture
metastasized cancer makes bones brittle that they break with minimal force
Axial skeleton
1. skull
2. vertebrae
3. sacrum
4. coccyx
5. hyoid bone
6. thoracic cage (sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae)
Appendicular skeleton
1. clavicle
2. scapula
3. bones of upper and lower extremities
4. os coaxe (pelvic, innominate, hip bones)
Cranium aka Neurocranium contains
1. frontal bone & frontal sinuses
2. parietal bone
3. temporal bones: external auditory meatus, mastoid process - zygomatic process, sternocleidomastoid muscle, styloid process, mandibular fossa, carotid canal, jugular foramen, petrous portion (process)
4. sphenoid bone - lesser wings, greater wings, body - sella turcica, pterygoid process
5. ethmoid bone- cribiform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, orbital plate, lateral masses
6. occipital bone - foramen magnum, occipital condyles
Frontal Bone of the Cranium
anterior superior cranium, upper portion of orbits, upper lateral portion of cranium
Frontal Sinuses of the Frontal Bone of the Cranium
at lower forehead, lined by mucus membrane (phonation: sound of voice), connects to nasal cavity
Parietal bone of cranium
top and sides of cranium
Temporal bones of cranium
middle lateral and portion of base of skull
External auditory meatus of the temporal bone of the cranium
tube/canal extends to middle ear
Mastoid process of the temporal bone of the cranium
post to external auditory meatus
attaches sternocleidomastoid muscle
contain sinuses connecting to middle ear (if infected -> meningitis)
Zygomatic process of the temporal bone of the cranium
forms part of the zygomatic arch, attaches masseter muscle
(massification = chew)
Styloid process of the temporal bone of the cranium
connects to hyoid, provide support and articulation with intervening skeletal muscles
Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone of the cranium
articulate with mandibular condyle
Carotid canal of the temporal bone of the cranium
internal carotid artery passes through
jugular foramen of the temporal bone of the cranium
jugular vein passes through
Petrous portion (process) of the temporal bone of the cranium
extends into cranial cavity, houses middle and external ears, internal auditory meatus
components of the temporal bone
1. external auditory meatus
2. mastoid process
3. sternocleidomastoid muscle
4. sinuses
5. zygomatic process
6. styloid process
7. mandibular fossa
8. carotid canal
9. jugular foramen
10. petrous portion (process)
Sphenoid bone of the cranium
1. lesser wings of sphenoid
2. greater wings of sphenoid
3. body
4. Pterygoid process of sphenoid
Lesser wings of sphenoid of the cranium
cranial cavity containing optic foramen (optic nerve from eye to brane)
Greater wings of sphenoid of the cranium
anterior to temporal bones, sides and floor of cranial cavity, roof of orbits
-contains F. Lacerum, F. Ovale, F. Spinosum, F. Rotundum for passage of nerves and blood vessels
Body of sphenoid of the cranium
Sella Turcica "Turkish" saddle; sphenoidal sinus
Pterygoid process of sphenoid of the cranium
extends off the body inferiorly
-attachment of muscles involved with chewing (massification
Ethmoid bone of the cranium
1. cribiform plate
2. crista galli
3. perpendicular plate of ethmoid
4. orbital plate of ethmoid
5. lateral masses
Cribiform plate of ethmoid of the cranium
horizontal plate in cranial cavity; many olfactory foramina that allow for passage of olfactory nerves
Crista galli of ethmoid of the cranium
projects superiorly into canal cavity
-attachment of meninges of brain to floor of cranial cavity
perpendicular plate of ethmoid of the cranium
inferiorly from cribiform plate into nasal cavity; articulates with vomer -> makes the nasal septum
Orbital plate of ethmoid of the cranium
medial posterior wall of the orbit
lateral masses of the ethmoid of the cranium
labryinth positions, ethmoid sinuses, superior and medial nasal conchae turbinate
Occipital bone of the cranium
1. foramen magnum
2. occipital condyles
Foramen magnum of the occipital bone of the cranium
spinal cord passes from cranial cavity into spinal cavity
Occipital condyles of the occipital bone of the cranium
protuberance on either side of the foramen magnum; articulates with the atlas
Splanchnocranium
1. mandible
2. maxilla
3. palatine bones
4. inferior nasal concha
5. vomer
6. zygomatic bone
7. nasal bones
8. lacrimal bone
9. orbital cavity
10. nasal cavity
11. paranasal sinuses
Mandible of the splanchnocranium
1. body
2. alveolar process
3. angle
4. ramus
5. coronoid process
6. condyloid process
7. mandibular condyle
alveolar process of the mandible of the splanchnocranium
tooth sockets
angle of the mandible of the splanchnocranium
body ends, ramus begins
ramus of the mandible of the splanchnocranium
body to coronoid and condyloid processes
coronoid process of the mandible of the splanchnocranium
muscle attachment for chewing (massification)
condyloid process of the mandible of the splanchnocranium
supports mandibular condyle
Mandibular condyle of the splanchnocranium
articulates with the temporal bone at the mandibular fossa; ONLY moveable joint in the skull EXCEPT ear ossicles (associated with hearing - sensory not mechanical movement)
Maxilla - two bones fused goether
contributes to orbit
frontal process
zygomatic process
alveolar process
palatine process
antrum of high more or maxillary sinus
Frontal process of the maxilla of the splanchnocranium
lacrimal groove passageway for nasolacrimal duct (tear duct) to pass from orbit to nasal cavity
Palatine process of the maxilla of the splanchnocranium
2/3 hard palate, roof of oral cavity, floor of nasal cavity
Antrum of high more or maxillary sinus of the maxilla of the splanchnocranium
internal space of the maxillary bone
Palatine bones of the splanchnocranium
"L shaped"
forms 1/3 hard palate posterior
extends superiorly
Inferior nasal concha of the splanchnocranium
laterally off of the maxillary bone; curved; vertical part of palatine bones into nasal cavity
vomer of the splanchnocranium
1. body of sphenoid
2. horizontal plate of palatine
3. palatine process of maxillary
4. perpendicular plate of ethmoid
AND the nasal septum
zygomatic bone of the splanchnocranium
1. frontal process
2. maxillary process
3. temporal procss
nasal bones of the splanchnocranium
sagittal between orbit and at top of opening into nasal cavity; bridge of nose
lacrimal bones of the splanchnocranium
posterior to lacrimal groove/sulcus
orbital cavity of the splanchnocranium
extrinsic eye muscle
nasal cavity of the splanchnocranium
Boundaries: superior/lateral - ethmoid (cribiform, orbital plate, lateral masses); inferior/lateral - maxilla; Floor - palatine process of maxilla, horizontal plate of palatine
Lining: mucous membrane with pseudo stratified ciliated clumnar
Nasal septum: divides nasal cavity : perpendicular plate and vomer