115 terms


Proprioceptive feedback
Personal agency
proprioceptive feedback
sensory information from muscles, tendons, and joints that help one to locate the position of one's body in space
personal agency
recognition that one can be the cause of an event
-2 months old has limited sense of personal agency
Lewis and Gunn's study of development of self-recognition
apply a spot of rouge on infants' noses and place them in fron of mirror
IF infants recognize themselves in mirror, wipe their own noses
younger ones: no self-recognition
18-24 months: touch their own noses
from age 3.5 years, children retrieve a coloured sticker placed on their heads if they see it in 2-3 min. video or photograph
2-3 years olds who display some recognition do not retrieve the sticker because concept of self is limited to present self*. (events that occurred in the past do not have implications)
-4-5 years olds quickly* retrieve sticker but will NOT retrieve if videotape depicts events that happened a week earlier. -> concept of ''extended self''
->recognize that 1)self is stable over time
2)events that happened RECENTLY have implications for the PRESENT
3)sticker seen a week later on film still not on their heads because it happened a long time ago
contributors to self-recognition
1) internalize sensorimotor schemes to form mental images
Even kids with Down syndrome can recognize themselves in a mirror if attained a mental age of 18-20 months
2) social experiences
chimpanzees does not recognize themselves in a mirror if reared in complete social isolation
3) secure attachment to a primary giver
attached 2 years olds outperformed insecurely attached age-mates on the self-knowledge test
-differences in self-knowledge between secure and insecure 3 year olds GREATER
4) cultural differences in parenting style
asking kids about what happened in the past- autobiographical memories help illustrate that self is stable over time -> extended self
culture that emphasize on interdependence: does not recognize themselves sin the rouge test
autonomy: recognize themselves
*feel least confident that they know who they truly are
13 years olds: few inconsistencies in their self-portraits/not bothered too much
15 years olds: many inconsistencies (highest*)
confused about it (highest*)
17 years olds: less inconsistencies compared to 15 years olds
East Asian cultures value self-effacement and view individuals who are preoccupied with personal concerns
abnormal and maladjusted
Majorities of Americans' core* self-descriptors vs. Japanese
personal/individualistic attributes
more inclined as they get older
vs. social/relational attributes
less inclined to make distinctions among individualistic attributes
children with high self-esteem
recognize their strong points
can acknowledge their weakness
feel positive about characteristics and competencies they display
children with low self-esteem
choose to dwell on perceived inadequacies rather than on strengths they have
self-esteem highest in children who are
securely attached to both parents
age 4-5 have a sense of self-esteem
self-perception scale- 5 domains
scholastic competence
social acceptance
physical appearance
athletic competence
behavioural conduct
4-7 years olds -> inflated self-perceptions
tend to rate themselves positively in all domains
starting at age 8 -> self-perception
reflect more on other people's evaluations of them

BOTH self-knowledge and self-esteem depend on the way others perceive and react to child's behaviour
relational self-worth contribute to
global self-esteem
girls with high self-esteem
supportive relationships with friends
boys with high self-esteem
ability to successfully influence their friends
low self-esteem girls
failure to win friends' approval
low self-esteem boys
lack of romantic competence
<changes in self-esteem>
children's and adolescents' views of their own competence
gradually decline across elementary, middle, and high school years
decline in self-esteem between ages 9 and 20, followed by
recovery and gradual increase in self-worth from young adulthood to age 65 and it declines again
erosion of self-esteem likely to be observed in those
experiencing multiple stressors as they enter adolescence
eg) transition from elementary to high school
parents' divorce
second leading cause of death in 1998
females attempt suicide more often but males succeed in suicide more often
adolescent suicide as "cry for help"
suicidal adolescents
severely depressed
abuse dugs
display other froms of antisocial conduct
-deteriorating relationships with parents
-suffered academic failures
-lost interest in hobbies or other enjoyable activites
friends and associates play an important role in preventing adolescent suicide
by recognizing warning signs and encouraging to talk about problems
young people who lose a sense of their own ''personal continuity'' are at special risk for suicide
whole communities (esp Aboriginal communities) esp. vulnerable to negative social outcomes, including
high suicide
school dropout rates

**both cultural and personal persistence is key to future health and well-being
social contributors to self-esteem
1) parenting style
2) peer influences
3) culture, ethnicity, and self-esteem
kids with high -self esteem have parents who are
warm, supportive
set clear standards for them to live up to
allow them a voice in making decisions
western societies
competition and individual accomplishments are stressed
strongest contributions to adolescent self-appraisals
quality of one's relationships with close friends
peer influences to self-esteem
from age 4-5, kids start using social comparison
this comparison increases and becomes more subtle with age
important role in shaping competencies and global self-esteem
culture, ethnicity to self-esteem
collectivist societies report lower levels of global self-esteem than individualistic countries
*western societies: take proud in individual accomplishments
collectivist societies: interdependent
acknowledging weakness and needs for self-improvement make collectivist children feel good about themsevles
american children emphasize individualistic nature of selves vs.
mothers: focus more on child
chinese children emphasize relational nature of selves
mothers: more leading and directive
achievement motivation
willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and to meet high standards of accomplishment
people around the world value personal attributes such as
self-reliance, responsibility, and willingness to work hard
White's proposal: infancy inward, intrinsically motivated to ''mater'' their env't
mastery motive
eg) turn knobs, open cabinets, and operate toys
((Development of achievement motivation))
Early Phases - development of self-evaluation
1. Joy in Mastery (infancy to age 2)

2. Approval Seeking (age 2)

3. Use of Standards (age 3 and older)
Joy In Mastery (infancy to age 2)
visibly pleased to master challenges
but do not call other people's attention to triumphs or seek recognition
simply shift goals and master other toys
not evaluating outcomes in relation to performance standars that define success and failure
Approval Seeking (age 2)
seek recognition when master challenges
-expect disapproval when fail
-learned that they can expect approval after successes and disapproval after failures
Use of Standards (age 3 and older)
capable of experiencing real pride in achievements and real shame after failure
children who score high on achievement motivation
receive better grades compared to those with low achievement motivation
<Achievement Motivation during Middle Childhood and Adolescence>
Home influences on master motivation and achievement
1) quality of attachment
2) home environment
3) child-rearing and achievement
quality of attachment
securely attached youngsters no more intellectually competent than insecurely attached age-mates
home environment
stimulating home environment foster good grades
-promote intrinsic orientation to achievement (strong willingness to seek out and master challenges to satisfy personal needs for competency or mastery)
child-rearing and achievement
independence training
-fostering autonomy and self-reliance
-achievement training - setting high standards and encouraging children to do things well- foster achievement motivation
-patterns of praise, criticism, and punishment that accompany child's accomplishments important
parents of youngsters high in achievement motivation - 3 characteristics *autoritative parenting
1) warm, accepting, and quick to praise children's accomplishments
2) provide guidance and control by setting standards, monitor the progress
3) permit the child some independence or autonomy, scaffolding tasks for young children
parents undermining a child's school performance and motivation
2) highly controlling, offer tangible bribes for good grades, nag continually about homework
peer pressures that interfere with academic achievement especially acute for
lower-income African American and Latino students
cultural differences in achievement motivation and attitudes toward learning
American more likely to view learning as a task to be accomplished
-NOT critical of learning failures
Chinese view learning as a personal virtue
-highly critical of failures in learning
<Development of achievement attributions>
Types of achievement attributions
attribute success or failures to 4 possible causes
1) ability
2) effort
3) task difficulty
4) luck
ability and task difficulty -> stable causes -> foster strong achievement expectancies
effort and luck -> unstable -> highly variable from situation to situation and promote weaker expectancies

task difficulty and luck -> external cause
ability and effort -> internal cause
youngsters have incremental view of ability
ability is changeable
can get smarter or become more capable through increased effort an lots of practice
children begin to distinguish ability from effort when they move toward
entity view of ability
entity view of ability
ability is fixed or stable trait that is not influenced much by effort or practice
Dweck's Learned-helplessness theory
mastery oriented vs. learned helplessness orientation
mastery oriented
attribute successes to high ability but externalize blame for failures (test was unfair)
attribute to unstable causes they can easily overcome
=persist in face of failure
highly motivated to master new challenges
learned helplessness
attribute successes to unstable factors of hard work/luck
-attribute failures to a stable and internal factor (lack of ability) --> cause them to form low expectations of future successes and give up
how does learned helplessness develop?
when they praise the child for working hard when she succeeds but criticize her lack of ability when she fails
grade 5 students receiving helplessness-pattern of evaluation while working at unfamiliar tasks
attribute failures to a lack of ability
grave 5 students who received mastery-oriented evaluative pattern
attributed failure to a lack of effort
effective therapy to overcome learned helplessness
attribution retaining
attribution retaining
helpless children are persuaded to attribute failures to unstable causes - lack of effort - rather than lack of ability
failing a series of math problems in success-only therapy vs. attribution retraining
success-only: no improvements
attribution retraining: tried harder when failed
person praise for success eg) you're really smart, intelligent
become interested in performance goals (display one's competencies)
failure -> give up and act helpless
process-oriented praise
adopt learning goals (increase one's skills or abilities)
failure -> devise a new strategy and keep working
process-oriented praise for success promote 1)_____ and prevent 2)_________
1) mastery orientation
2) learned helplessness
Self-definition, sense of who one is, where one is going in life, and how one fits into society
Erikson's identity crisis in adolescence
Uncertainty and discomfort at confusion about one's role in life
occurs early in adolescence and often resolved by 15-18
Identity status in adolescence
1.Identity diffusion
4.Identity achievement
Identity Diffusion
not yet thought about or resolved identity issues
-not charted future life directions
eg) I haven't really thought much about religion, and I guess I don't know exactly what I believe
committed to an identity but made this commitment without experiencing ''crisis'' of deciding what really suits them best
eg) M parents are Christians and So I'm a Christian; it's just the way I grew up.
identity crisis
-actively asking questions about life commitments and seeking answers
eg) I like many of the answers provided by Catholic upbringing but I'm skeptical about some teachings as well. I have been looking into Unitarianism to see if it might help me answer my questions
Identity Achievement
solved identity issues by making personal commitments to particular goals, beliefs, and values
eg) After a lot of soul-searching about religion, I finally know what I believe and what I don't
gender difference in identity formation process
girls make progress the same age as the boys do
but! they put more importance to the aspects of identity that centre on sexuality, gender roles, and issue of balancing career
Archer: identity statuses of grade 6 to grade 12 students in 4 domains
1)occupational choice
2)gender-role attitudes
3)religious beliefs
4)political ideologies
- only 5% in same identity status in all 4 domains, 95% in two or three statuses across 4 domains
->adolescents can achieve a strong sense of identity in one area and still be searching in others
vast majority of 12-18 years olds -> identity diffuse or foreclosed
not until age 21 or older: reached moratorium or identity achievement
*women: greater important to the aspects of identity that centre on sexuality, gender roles, and issue of balancing career and family goals
individuals without a clear identity
depressed and lack in self-confidence
-embrace negative identity
=better to become everything that one is not supposed to be than to have no identity at all
adolescents stuck in diffusion status
highly apathetic and express helplessness about future
-become suicidal
influnces on identity formation
1)cognitive influences
2)parenting influences
3)scholastic influences
4)sociocultural influences
cognitive influences on identity formation
who achieved solid mastery of formal-operational thought and can reason logically about hypotheticals
-> better able to imagine and contemplate future identities
-more likely to raise and resolve identity issues
parenting influences on identity formation
adolescents in diffusion status -> more likely to feel neglected or rejected by parents

identity foreclosure: extremely close to and fear rejection from controlling parents
-never question parental authority or feel any need to forge a separate identity

moratorium and identity achievement: solid base of affection at home combined with freedom to be individuals in own right
scholastic influences on identity formation
attending university push people toward setting career goals and making stable occupational commitments
-regress from identity achievement to moratorium or even diffusion status
sociocultural influences on identity formation
foreclosure -> most adaptive route to adulthood for world's adolescents -specific life goals adolescents pursue are constrained by whatever options are available and valued in society
Age trends in person perception
children younger than 7-8: characterize people in the same concrete, observable terms they use to describe the self
when use a psychological term to describe others, use more as a label for the other person's recent behaviour
by age 3-5: children aware of how closest peer companions typically behave in a variety of situations
5 years olds: individual differences in past behaviours -> different motives and different traits
origins of ethnic discrimination
more cognitive, reflecting tendency of ego-centric youngsters to categorize people by skin colour and to strongly favour the group to which they belong, without necessarily being overtly hostile toward people of other ethnicities
Euro-Australian children's prejudice toward black Aborigines declined between age 5-9,
intensified at age 10-12.
increased prejudice in age 10-12 years old -> influence of adult attitudes
bast way to combat racism
to talk openly about ethnic diversity and harmful effects of prejudice
why 4-6 olds use few trait words to describe their companions
1) less likely than older children to view traits as stable over time -> subject to change
2) using trait labels as adjectives to describe recent behaviour eg) that was mean*, billly
behavioural comparions and psychological constructs//psychological comparisons
behavioural comparions increased between ages 6 and 8, declined rapidly after age 9 eg) Yuri runs faster than John ->children become increasingly aware of regularities* in companion's behaviour and begin to attribute stable psychological constructs
-use of psychological constructs incr. rapidly between 8-11 (the same period when behavioural comparions become less common)
-psychological comparisons: majority of 12-16 can -by age 14-16: recognize that situational factors can cause a person to act "out of character"
behavioural comparison
form impression of others by comparing and contrasting their overt behaviours
psychological constructs phase
base one's impressions of others on stable traits that individuals are presumed to have
psychological comparions phase
form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting individuals
2 cognitive theories of social cognition
1.cognitive-developmental theory
2.Selman's role-taking theory
cognitive developmental theory
the way people think about the self depend on their own levels of cognitive development
7-10 years olds: enter concrete operational stage
-egocentrism less pronounced
-decentring, recognize certain properties of an object remain unchanged despite changes in object's appearance
12-14: enter formal operations
-think logically and systematically about abstractions
-ability to think in dimensional terms and reliably order people along a dimensional scale
particular aspect of cognitive development underlies
the growth of role-taking skills
(role-taking: assume another person's perspective and understand his/her thoughts, feelings, and behaviours
Selman's role-taking theory
in order to know a personal, one must be able to assume his perspective and understand his thoughts, feelings, motives, and intentions
principal basis for friendship among 6-8 years old
-begin to view a fried as someone who chooses* to "do nice things for me"
common activity
Selman's stage 2, 8-10 years old, view friendships as
reciprocal relationships, based on mutual trust
Selman's stage 3 or 4, early adolescence, view friendships as
friends as psychologically similar people who like, trust, and assit each other
-emphasis on exchange of intimate thoughts and feelings
-expect friends to stick up for them, be loyal, provide close emotional support
social experience as a contributor to role taking
equal-status contacts among peers: important contributor to social perspective taking and growth of interpersonal understanding
disagreeing friends provide information needed to understand and appreciate conflicting points of view
social experience as direct contributor to person perception
more experience a child has with peers, the more motivated she should be try to understand them, the more practised she should become at appraising the cause of their behaviour
-popular children outperform less popular age-mates on tests of social outstanding, even when role-taking skills are comparable
-BOTH social experience (popularity) and cognitive competence (role-taking skills) combine to development of children's understanding of other people
social cognition chapter (this chapter)
holistic nature of child development
Selman's stages of social perspective taking
0. egocentric or undifferentiated perspective (roughly 3-6 ages)
1. social-informational role taking (6-8 years)
2. self-reflective role taking (8-10 years)
3. mutual role taking (10-12 years)
4. societal role taking (12-15 years)
egocentric or undifferentiated perspective (3-6 years)
children are unaware of any perspective other than their own. They assume that whatever they feel is right for Holly to do will be agreed by others.
eg) "Holly's father will be happy because he likes kittens"
social-information role taking (6-8 years)
Recognize that people have different perspectives that differ from their own but because they have received different info
eg) "If he didn't know why she climbed the tree, he would be angry. But he won't be after knowing why she did it."
self-reflective role taking (8-10 years)
children know their own and other's point of view may conflict even if they receive the same information
-now able to consider other person's viewpoint
-cannot* consider her own perspective and of another person at the same time
eg) answering that Holly will climb the tree because "she knows that her father will understand why she did it." -> focusing on Holly's perspective
when asked whether father would want Holly to climb the tree, answer is No. -> taking father's perspective
mutual role taking (10-12 years)
can simultaneously consider her own and another person's points of view and recognize that the other person can do the same
-assume the perspective of a disinterested 3rd party and anticipate how each will react to the viewpoint
eg) know that both Holly and her father are thinking about what each other is thinking
eg) Holly wanted to get kitty but she knew she wasn't supposed to climb trees. Holly's father knew Holly was told not to climb but he couldn't have known about kitty
societal role taking (12-15 years)
expect others to consider and typically assume perspectives on events that most people in their social group would take
eg) when asked if Holly should be punished for climbing the tree, say NO: value of humane treatment of animals justifies Holly's act and most fathers would recognize this
Piaget's cognitive stages and Selman's stages:
pre-operational children
Selman's stage 0 or 1 (1st or 2nd level)
Piaget's cognitive stages and Selman's stages:
concrete operators
stage 2 or 3 (third or fourth level)
Piaget's cognitive stages and Selman's stages:
formal operators
equally distributed* between stage 3 and 4 (fourth and fifth levels)