14 terms

Period 6: Vocab Quiz #1

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total war
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
nationalism
A belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history. Led to unification of new countries, decolonization movements, and WWI.
communism
A political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government. (Ex: China, Vietnam, Soviet Union, Cuba, North Korea)
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
mandate system
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
Five Year Plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine.
Great Depression
Starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting, HH was blamed for it
New Deal
(FDR) , , President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM
fascism
A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism. (Ex: Italy during WWII)
United Nations
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
Cold War
(1945-1991) The period after the Second World War marked by rivalry and tension between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union. The Cold War ended when the Soviet government collapsed in 1991.
NATO
1949; North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an attack against one of the member nations would be viewed as an attack against them all; protected member nations under American nuclear power; inspired Soviet Union to create the German Democratic Republic (Eastern Germany) and set up rival eastern bloc military alliance, the Warsaw Pact in 1955; sparked the massive arms race known as the Cold War
metropoles
"Mother cities;" cities (or countries) that historically colonized other territories; they are the main cities as opposed to the outer regions
pan-Africanism
Philosophy based on the belief that Africans share common bonds and are a unified people. Adopted this to break from colonial rule.

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