A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
1989 - University students in China protested, wanting freedom of speech and a greater say in govt. China's Communist leader ordered military to slaughter students. Currently a forbidden topic in China.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.
The deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. (Ex: Holocaust, Cambodia, Rwanda, Armenia)
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence. (Ex: India gained independence from Great Britain, the Gold Coast from the British, and the West Africans from the French).
The worldwide campaign to increase agricultural production from the 1940s to 60s, stimulated by new fertilizers and strains of wheat that could withstand drought and disease and be grown in less hospitable locations. The movement saved millions from starvation but is also criticized as being unsustainable.
An environmental organization founded in 1971 and dedicated to the preservation of earth's natural resources. Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity" and focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues.
An anti-war painting by Pablo Picasso, painted in 1937. The painting was created in response to the bombing of Guernica, a Basque Country village in northern Spain, by Nazi German and Fascist Italian warplanes at the request of the Spanish Nationalists as part of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). It brought attention to the war and the atrocities of war.
a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000-146,000 people
Indian National Congress (INC)
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government (as opposed to British control through colonization). Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.