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Terms in this set (97)
Memory research has been done on these 3 types of subjects
animals, healthy subjects, case reports on brain-damaged patients
The case reports on brain-damaged patients on an ANATOMICAL level demonstrate the importance of specific regions in the brain and the ________ between these regions.
The case reports on brain-damaged patients on an COGNITIVE level demonstrate the _____ dimension of memory and the ______ ____ subdivision of memory
time, content based
*Who had the most influence in memory research back in the day?
Lashley found what through his research?
didn't matter where he lesions, just how much
*Lashley adopted the concept of _____ _____
lashley's student was
*donald hebb came up with "____ ____" theory to explain memory
the cell assembly model stated when cells are _____ they create memory
who wrote the book "the organization of behavior"?
*who is known for his work with awake craniotomies/surface stimulation?
penfield believed the ____ lobe held the key to memory
penfield suspected memories remembered during awake craniotomy were ____
donald hebb's student was
milner was interested in
this syndrome is caused by bilateral damage to the amygdala that causes fight, flight, and fornication
Milner had a patient PB who was an
*PB: PB had ______ _____ which caused his seizures and required surgery (which was ultimately unsucessful)
*PB: T/F- PB had both anterograde and some retrograde amnesia
*PB: What caused PB's death?
*PB: What did they find post-mortum in the case of PB?
more atrophy on the right side
*Milner had two famous cases. Who were they? (not including HM)
PB and FC
*FC: What procedure caused FC's severe amnesia?
*FC: FC was given a maze that did what if you were on the wrong path?
*What was the hypothesis as to why Penfield's patients developed amnesia?
the patients had trouble with the right hippocampus and couldn't compensate for the damaged left
*HM suffered _(retrograde, anterograde)_ amnesia
*HM: His case was different than PB because HM's surgery was ____ and also was more ____
*HM: What condition did HM have?
temporal lobe epilepsy
HM: What happened when HM was 16 that the doctors thought may have triggered what was going to happen to him later?
HM: T/F- HM used auditory rehearsal in a unique way to remember the numbers that were given to him
HM: HM couldn't learn over a span of ___ days
*HM: What was the task that showed a big breakthrough in HM?
Mirror drawing of a star
*HM: What was the theory behind HM's success of learning how to successfully do mirror drawing?
motor system memories are different parts of the brain
*HM: T/F- when showed pictures without the contour and just the details (e.g. airplane) HM did not learn from one day to the next
*HM: Details of photos without the contour does not have to with the ____ lobe
HM: T/F- When Dr. Scoville approached the brain through two 1.5 inch supraorbital tephine holes, HM's seizure attacks intensified.
*HM: T/F- After his surgery, HM's profound anterograde amnesia ensued
*HM: T/F- HM was able to hold info in his STM for very short periods of time
*HM: What was Milner's primary finding with HM, regarding his amnesia?
everything after the lesion is lost because there was no encoding
*Who was the first two say we have two types of memory?
*Claparede would ____ people's hand and then try to shake their hand again to see if they remembered
Was HM's last name Mulligan?
HM forgot things within _#_ minutes
*Milner's secondary finding was the difference between these two types of memory
declarative and procedural- they are stored in different parts of the brain
HM: T/F- HM had his hippocampus removed
*HM influenced these types of testing
Wada, neuropsychological, MRI
*How did HM influence Wada testing
reduce chances of having another patient like PB
*How did HM influence neuropsych testing
epilepsy surgeries, document base level of functions, verbal vs nonverbal, right/left hippocampal functions
*how did hm influence mri studies
3d protocols allowed to see hippocampal formation
*What was the main reason HM was famous?
His brain shows hippocampal formation relates to being able to lay down new memories
*The 2 major types of memory are
declarative and procedural
*semantic memory deals with
*episodic memory deals with
episodic memory requires a ___ element
episodic memory requires an intact ____ and ____
hippocampus and amygdala
*the two types of procedural memory are
skills and priming
testing ____ memory can show malingering/exaggeration
*Eijkman first described
*Korsakoff syndrome comes from the production of _______ ______
*Korsakoff syndrome happens due to this vitamin being removed
*Lack of vitamin B1 causes lack of ____
*lack of B1 and lack of thiamine causes this disease
*beriberi causes damage to these (3) areas
mammillary bodies, fornix, thalamus
Beriberi intially occurs as a ___________ encephalopathy
Wernicke encephalopathy is characterized by (3)...
confusion, deliriousness, and psychotic features
if people recover from beriberi, they have ______ deficits
*if people recover from beriberi, they have these types of memory deficits (4)
anterograde amnesia, proactive intereference, confabulations, episodic retrograde amneisa
T/F: semantic memories remain intact in survivors of beriberi
T/F: According to Gazzaniga, people confabulate because the right-hemisphere tries to come up with logical regions about how to interpret the world
When one provides information that kind of sounds right, but is not true, it is called
*Who said (about Korsakoff Syndrome) "Gross distrubances of the organization of impressions of events and their sequence in time"
What was the hypothesis for the funnel effect with Korsakoff syndrome?
memory degrades as they drink alcohol
who debunked the hypothesis for the funnel effect of korsakoff syndrome?
PS: T/F- was the first patient to have full retrograde amnesia after a stroke
*PS: PS had intact language functioning and a normal IQ, but impaired ____ for stories and designs and imparied _____ _____
memory, executive functioning
*Who was the patient that was "stuck in time", i.e. he thought he was in 1941-1946 and still active in the military?
*PS: What semantic tests are given to distinguish memory deficits? (hint: famous.... what tests)
famous faces, famous public events
*PS: what episodic tests are given to distinguish memory deficits?
autobiographical memory interview, famous personal events
*PS had _____ amensia
*DA: 45 year old male with excruciating headaches. He had bilateral damage to the ______
DA: information going from the thalamic nuclei to the ______ was disconnected
DA: Had a colloid-cyst in the anterior part of the ___ ventricle with a mild degree of obstructive _______
obstructive hydroencephalus causes
*where is the foramen of Munro located
between the lateral and 3rd ventricles
DA: Although DA was unsure why he was hospitalized after he had surgery and he couldn't recognize his neurosurgeon, he could retain simple verbal matieral (i.e. 3 words)
Why is DA an important case?
it shows how the hippocampus works in the brain
DA: What was the theory as to why DA couldn't remember the ANna Thompson story/remember taking the test?
He couldn't attend to the information
*The hippocampus organizes memories by sequences and has _____ for the sequences
*the hippocampus uses _____, like a ____ ____ to condense information
compression, zip file
the hippocampus is like a ____ of ___- the memory is there but all over the place.
string of beads
the thalamic nuclei is like a _____- works with the organization of memory
There are two types of "self" when it comes to memory:
the experiencing self only knows the ____
the remembering self keeps ___ and maintains the story of ____
the ______ of memories are very important because memories can be transformed by them
What is the evolutionary reason that the end of memories are important?
decide whether to repeat the situation at a later point
_____ are introduced to memories through the amygdala
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