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ARCH 250 Klein Exam 3
Terms in this set (109)
architectural frame around a doorway, consisting of two columns or pilasters and a pediment above
a formalized beam or lintel, the lowest of the three main parts of an entablature
decorative box-like compartments in a ceiling
crowning projecting moulded horizontal top of a building
small block forming one of a long horizontal series, closely set, under the cornices
resembles rows of teeth
horizontal projecting band or moulding on a façade
the great revival of arts and letters under the influence of Classical precedents spreading to virtually all corners of Europe
The principles of Greek and Roman art and architecture
author of ten 'De Architectura' books
Filippo Brunelleschi 
distinguished architect of the Renaissance
Florence Dome, Old Sacristy of S. Lorenzo
Why was the Florence cathedral unfinished in the early 15th century? How does Brunelleschi overcome these challenges? 
architects of the time were unsure how to finish the dome, built too wide
Brunelleschi used a gothic pointed arch shape for the dome instead of a semicircle
Who paid for the Foundling Hospital and what does this tell us about 15th century society in Florence?
Arte della Seta (Silk Guild of Florence)
took upon itself philanthropic duties
What is the purpose of the Foundling Hospital?
Why is the Foundling Hospital known as the 'first building of the Renaissance?
it continues the link with classical tradition that had been maintained in Florence through such buildings as the Romanesque S. Miniato al Monte
roofed structure, open on at least one side
a dome resembling a billowing sail over a square compartment with its diameter the same dimension as the diagonal
single decorative element used to support a mantel or an above course
a dark greenish-grey Florentine stone
Old Sacristy, San Lorenzo
Who commissioned the Old Sacristy church and why was it important to them?
the Medici family
used it for worship and as a mausoleum
What are some of the Classical elements that appear in the Old Sacristy? 
corinthian columns and an arcade
flat engaged column
Leon Battista Alberti
first architectural theorist of the Renaissance
façade of Santa Maria Novella, Church of S. Andrea
trompe l'oiel painting
two-dimensional painting showing an arrangement of objects that look disconcertingly real
principal story of a building containing the apartments of ceremony and reception
the carving or creation of imperfections or making a texture on a face
Who commissioned the Medici Palace and what was it used for? [293-294]
Cosimo de' Medici
used as a place of residence for the Medici family
Describe the appearance of the exterior façade of the Medici Palace from bottom to top.
3 levels, each becoming less heavy in appearance going up
first level has heavy rusticated stone with iron barred windows to give an appearance of fortification and safety
What are Classical architectural elements on the façade and courtyard of the Medici Palace?
Roman arches, architraves above the first floor windows
small cornices and dentils between courses
What sorts of rooms are found inside and where are they located in the Medici Palace?
first floor were rooms used for banking business
second floor were private family rooms (kitchen, living, dining, etc)
third floor were bedrooms
Church of Santa Maria Novella
Who commissioned Alberti to create the façade of Santa Maria Novella?
Giovanni di Paolo Rucellai
How does Alberti's façade reflect older local churches around Santa Maria Novella, as well as his own interest in Classical proportions and decoration? 
same façade building shape
used black and white marble veneer to create geometric patterns
exterior roman blind arcade
What additions does Alberti make to the façade of Santa Maria Novella that reflect the inventions of the Renaissance? 
Alberti attempted to unify the façade by linking lower aisle roofs to the pedimented higher nave with flanking scrolls
Church of San Andrea
What are some of the specific ancient Roman buildings that provided Alberti with inspiration for his Church of San Andrea?
Basilica of Constantine, roman baths
What additions does Alberti make to San Andrea that reflect the inventions of the Renaissance? 
the assemblage of classical elements on the interior
Who commissioned the Tempietto? Why is the location important?
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
built atop the spot where St. Peter is believed to have been martyred
Which of the classical orders does Bramante use, and how does he adapt the decoration to suit a Christian monument? [303-304]
Doric columns and frieze
Christian reference for tradition, in this case reverence for the circular martyria of the early church
style of architecture from the period of Michelangelo identified by the employment of Classical elements in a strange way
tripartite window, door, or blind architectural feature consisting of a central opening springing from two entablatures each supported by two columns
wrote The Four Books on Architecture, 1570
Classical style based on the elements of symmetry and proportion
What sort of information dis Palladio include in his Four Books on Architecture and why did it become such an influential work? [317-318]
-contains Palladio's pictures and information on the orders of architecture, domestic architecture, public buildings, town planning, and temples
-became a guidebook for later architects
Palazzo del Te
What was Giulio Romano's background and training, and how does this contribute to his role as one of the 'Mannerists' of the Late Renaissance?
Was a pupil under Raphael as a painter
one of the characteristics of Mannerism is trompe l'oiel painting
Why is the Palazzo del Te considered to be one of the best examples of Mannerist architecture? Why do you need to understand the principles of the Classical Orders to appreciate these developments?
Used elements of Classical architecture, although incorrectly, a staple of the Mannerist style
What other type of building did it imitate in its plan and how is this relevant to the family that commissioned the construction of the Palazzo del Te?
the building resembles a stable
the Gonzaga family were horsebreeders
How do the interior murals in the Palazzo del Te contribute to the Mannerist effect? [309-310]
contribute to the illusion of physical decoration that does not exist in 3 dimensions
Laurentian Library, San Lorenzo
Who paid for the construction of the Laurentian Library and what was its purpose?
to house the Medici library for use by scholars within the cloister of S. Lorenzo
How does the Laurentian Library reflect Brunelleschi's design of the Old Sacristy in San Lorenzo? What are some of its Mannerist inventions? [310-312]
paid homage by a hemispherical dome on pendentives
emphasized the seeming instability of the whole by having the columns appear to be supported on consoles
all of the architectural elements have been compressed together to create tension
What type of building is the Palazzo Chiericati and where does it stand? 
Identify the architectural elements of the façade of the Palazzo Chiericati that were borrowed from Classical Architecture.
Doric and Ionic orders
loggia and colonnade
Who commissioned Palladio to build the Villa Barbaro? 
Daniele and Marcantonio Barbaro
What distinguishes a rural villa like the Villa Barbaro from one found in the city?
combined the living and agricultural functions into a single, extended structure
What led Palladio to use columns and a pediment in his design of house façades?
Palladio had interpreted Vitruvius as saying that Greek temples had evolved from houses
How do the interior paintings of the Villa Barbaro contribute to the sense of space? [319-320]
shadow projections increase the sense of depth
Who built the châteaux in the Loire valley and what was their purpose? 
the king and his nobles
built for entertainment and hunting
What historical events led to the lack of influence from the Italian Renaissance in England? 
the large military campaign against Italy
Louis XII (1498-1508)
Francis I (1515-1524)
projecting framed structure set vertically on the rafters of a pitched roof and a window set vertically on the front
a wedge-shaped piece of wood, stone, or other material, used to accent corners or edges of doors, windows, doorways, etc.
style of architecture modelled on a type of astylar Italian palazzo
includes aedicules, quoins, and plan façades
Compare the wing of the Château Blois built by Louis XII to the wing built by Francis I - which one has more medieval/Gothic features and which one shows Renaissance developments? 
Louis XII --> Gothic
Francis I --> Renaissance
What are some of the architectural decorations that draw inspiration from the classical orders in the Château Blois? Are they used correctly?
vertical emphasis on windows clashes with horizontal elements
Domenico da Cortana for Francis I
How does the plan of Château Chambord reflect older, medieval castles?
outer wall, fortified towers, keep
a great lantern above the staircase is one of a whole cluster of cones, chimneys, and dormers
Place Royale (Place des Vosges)
Who commissioned the construction of the Place Royale?
What is a place and how does it contribute to the growth and development of the city?
a residential square bounded by row houses with uniform façades
used for festivals and tournaments as well as housing for the common upper class citizens
Elizabethan country house
showing influences of the Tudor and Renaissance period
common Northern-European ornament in the form of narrow bands or fillets, folded, crossed, etc in an artistic fashion
room or gallery in a great Elizabethan style house
well lit by means of lavish windows
used to hang tapestries and pictures, and for entertainment
Who built houses like Wollaton Hall and why?
houses for the Queen and her entourage
What are some of the rooms found inside and how does this relate to its purpose?
great hall, long galleries, accommodations for the nobles
How do Elizabethan country houses draw upon both medieval traditions and Renaissance innovation? [334-335]
symmetrical arrangement of the main hall and its contiguous exterior colonnades
central square plan with corner pavilions
Banqueting Hall, Whitehall Palace
For whom was the Banqueting Hall built and what was the purpose?
rebuilt an burned down portion of Whitehall Palace
How does the exterior of the Banqueting House of Whitehall Palace reflect Palladio's work and ideas?
half-columns on the central three-bay pavilion
arranged the windows to have an alternate segmental and triangular pediments along the piano nobile
responsible for the large Egyptian obelisk from the Circus Gai et Neronis in the center of the piazza in front of St. Peter's
developed the Baroque style
nephew of D. Fontana, helped with the Vatican obelisk project
sculptor, architect, and painter
major contributor to Baroque style
designed the piazza leading up to St. Peter's
What are the origins and characteristics of Baroque architecture? 
to restate tradition Catholic teaching after reforms
based on an elaboration of Classical forms
exaggerated gestures, excessive ornamentation, and unconcealed emotionalism
Giacomo Vignola and Giacomo della Porta
Who built the Church of Il Gesú (patron and organization)?
Order of the Society of Jesus
Identify the architectural elements on the façade of Il Gesú.
pilasters, engaged columns, triangular pediment, segmental pediment
How does the Giacomo Vignola's design of Il Gesú draw inspiration from Alberti's S. Andrea in Mantua? In what way does it show innovation? [341-343]
- resembles in plan with transverse barrel vaulted chapels flanking longitudinal barrel vaulted nave
- differs by producing clear sightlines and acoustics
- strong axial emphasis
a sculptural canopy above a tomb, such as at St. Peter's
Why is the basilica of St. Peter located where it stands? Why did the Pope decide the rebuild the church? [343-345]
built atop the sight where Peter was crucified and buried
Sixtus V was concerned about the neglected appearance of Rome
Who are the principle architects involved in the rebuilding of St. Peter's, and what did each of them contribute to the finished basilica? [344-347]
Giacomo della Porta
- finished the dome
- obelisk and dome engineer
-nave addition and main façade
- flooring of the nave and narthex, decoration of interior, baldacchino, piazza
What is the purpose of the baldacchino? How does it incorporate symbolism that reflects its purpose and also the patronage of the Barberini family? [345-347]
demarcation of the tomb of St. Peter
the columns were supposedly from the Temple of Solomon
Roman bronze from the Pantheon
incorporated the crest of the Barberini
Describe the form of Bernini's piazza leading to St. Peter's. What are the spatial and spiritual values associated with Bernini's design? 
Round with covered collonaded porches around the sides, obelisk in the center
resembles a key, the symbol of St. Peter
characterized by motifs of seashells and the ocean
light pastel colors
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
What historical events led to the construction of the Karlskirche?
The emperor had it built after the plague went away 'by the hand of God'
Look at the façade of the Karlskirche and identify at least three design elements based on either ancient Roman or Baroque Italy. [359-360]
triumphal columns, triangular pediment, corinthian columns, roman arches, dome
Die Wies (Pilgrimage Church of Christ Scourged)
Who commissioned the building of the Pilgrimage Church of Christ Scourged and what attracted pilgrims to visit?
Abbot of Steingaden Abbey
crying statue of Jesus
How does the interior design of Die Wies and decoration illustrate Rococo forms and illusionistic effects?
shell shaped cutouts ('clerestory')
What is meant by the phrase 'spatial dematerialization' and how does it apply to Dominikus Zimmermann's design of Die Wies? [362-363]
adding a sense of depth to the interior by having two layers that seem to blend together
The Louvre, East Façade
Louis Le Vau, Charles Lebrun, Clause Perrault
Describe the architectural composition of the façade of the Louvre. How does the design reflect Italian Renaissance principles? [365-366]
central pediment, end pavilions, and paired columns, rustication
What do the pairs of columns symbolize in the East façade of The Louvre?
links work to Baroque precedent
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