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Nasal fossae

The nose is divided into right and left halves termed the
a. Nasal cavities
b. Nasal fossae
c. Nasal septa
d. Nasal vestibules
e. Nasal apertures

Vestibular and vocal ligaments

Which two ligaments extends from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?
a. Vestibular and vocal ligaments
b. Layrngeal and corniculate
c. Corniculate and cricoids
d. Cricoids and arytenoids
e. Thyrohyoid and cricoids

It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators

Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
a. It controls the ph of body fluids
b. It promotes the flow of lymph and venous blood
c. It helps regulate blood pressure
d. It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators
e. It helps with defecation

From the nose through the larynx

The upper respiratory tract extends:
a. From the nose through the trachea
b. From the nose through the pharynx
c. From the nose through the larynx
d. From the nose through the alveoli
e. From the nose through the lungs

The lower respiratory system remains humidified

One benefit from air passing by the turbinates is:
a. The turbinates separate airflow from food and drink
b. The lower respiratory system remains humidified
c. The turbinates filter CO2 from the air
d. They increase its oxygen concentration
e. This is where odors are detected

Dust cells

The most numerous cells in the lungs are called:
a. Mucosal cells
b. Type I alveolar cells
c. Type II alveolar cells
d. Dust cells
e. Vibrissae

The pulmonary artery

Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by?
a. The aorta
b. The pulmonary artery
c. The pulmonary vein
d. The inferior vena cava
e. The superior vena cava

Respiratory bronchioles

Which of the following does not have cilia?
a The nasal cavity
b. The trachea
c. The bronchi
d. Terminal bronchioles
e. Respiratory bronchioles

Their shape

What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?
a. Their shape
b. Their size
c. Their function
d. Their epithelial type
e. Presence or absence of cilia

The epiglottis

Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except:
a. The pharynx
b. The epiglottis
c. The oral cavity
d. The tongue
e. The lips

The thyroid cartilage

Which of the following cartilages is largest?
a. The corniculate cartilage
b. The epiglottic cartilage
c. The thyroid cartilage
d. The cricoids cartilage
e. The arytenoids cartilage

Decreasing intraabdominal pressure

The Valsalva maneuver can assist in diagnosing a hernia by
a. Increasing intrathoracic pressure
b. Decreasing intraabdominal pressure
c. Increasing expiratory force
d. Reducing expiratory force
e. Increasing mediastinal pressure

Dalton's law

______ states that the total pressure of a fas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases
a. Boyle's law
b. Valsalva's law
c. Dalton's law
d. Charle's law
e. Henry's law

Bronchiole diameter

In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
a. Atmospheric pressure
b. Respiratory rate
c. Bronchiole diameter
d. Quantity of surfactant
e. The diaphragm

Inspiratory reserve volume

The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called
a. Vital capacity
b. Inspiratory reserve volume
c. Expiratory reserve volume
d. Residual volume
e. Inspiratory capacity

Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume

16. Vital capacity consists of
a. Inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory volume
b. Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume
c. Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume
d. Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
e. Respiratory volume + tidal volume

Kussmaul respiration

Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
a. Tachypnea
b. Dyspnea
c. Orthopnea
d. Hyperpnea
e. Kussmaul respiration

Hyperbaric oxygen

A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with which of the following?
a. Hyperventilation
b. Hyperbaric oxygen
c. Hypercaloric intake
d. Hypoxic drive
e. Hyperoxidation


Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except
a. Carbinohemoglobin
b. Carbonic acid
c. Carbonate
d. Bicarbonate ions
e. Dissolved gas

A venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood

Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a Good Samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
a. Reserve oxygen in Tom's lungs
b. A venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood
c. The ambient Po2 can support life that long
d. The Haldane effect lasts up to 5 minutes
e. Tom's hypoxic drive will keep him alive for up to 5 minutes

Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
a. Increased H+ level in the blood
b. The Bohr effect
c. Reduced blood pH
d. Reduced oxyhemoglobin
e. Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

An increase in membrane thickness

Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
a. An increase in membrane thickness
b. An increase in alveolar surface area
c. An increase in respiratory rate
d. A decrease in membrane thickness
e. A decrease in nitrogen solubility


The addition of CO2 to the blood generates _______ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen
a. Sodium
b. Potassium
c. Nitrogen
d. Hydrogen
e. Chloride

Erythrocyte count

Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
a. Epinephrine
b. Fever
c. Thyroid hormone
d. Low pH
e. Erythrocyte count


Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
a. Oxygen
b. Water vapour
c. Nitrogen
d. Carbon dioxide
e. Hydrogen


Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to ______ oxygen molecules
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 5

95; 40; 7.4

Normally the systemic arterial blood has a PO2 of _______ mm Hg, a Pco2 of _______ mm Hg, and a pH of ______.
a. 40; 95; 7.4
b. 95; 40; 7.4
c. 7.4; 40; 95
d. 95; 7.4; 40
e. 40; 7.4; 95

Carbonic anhydrase

Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
a. Hemoglobin
b. Carboxyhemoglobin
c. Carbonic anhydrase
d. Bisphosphoglycerate
e. Carbaminoreductase

20% to 25%

In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
a. 5% to 10%
b. 10% to 15%
c. 20% to 25%
d. 30% to 40%
e. 70% to 85%


Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
a. Apoxia
b. Hypoxia
c. Anoxia
d. Cyanosis
e. Eupnea

Ischemic hypoxia

Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?
a. Hypoxemic hypoxia
b. Ischemic hypoxia
c. Anemic hypoxia
d. Histotoxic hypoxia
e. Idiopathic hypoxia

Chronic bronchitis

Is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum
a. Asthma
b. Oat cell carcinoma
c. Atelectasis
d. Chronic bronchitis
e. Emphysema

Sickle cell disease

Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
a. Sickle cell disease
b. Emphysema
c. Squamous-cell carcinoma
d. Asthma
e. Atelectasis


A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is
a. Cor pulmonale
b. Pulmonary hemosiderosis
c. Emphysema
d. Atelectasis
e. Collapsed lung


In ________, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis
a. Pneumonia
b. Dyspnea
c. Pneumothorax
d. Tuberculosis
e. rhinitis


Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
a. Squamous cell carcinoma
b. Oat cell carcinoma
c. Adenocarcinoma
d. Pulmonary edema
e. Cor pulmonale

Ondine's curse

Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in
a. A Bohr effect
b. Adult respiratory distress syndrome
c. Pneumothorax
d. Atelectasis
e. Ondine's curse

Acute rhinitis

Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
a. Apnea
b. Adult respiratory distress syndrome
c. Acute bronchitis
d. Acute rhinitis
e. Asthma

Oxygen toxicity

Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid
a. The bends
b. Oxygen toxicity
c. Rapture of the deep
d. Caisson disease
e. Hypoxemic hypoxia

Cerebral embolism

Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called
a. Decompression sickness a.k.a. Caissons Disease
b. Hyperbaric disease
c. Cerebral embolism
d. Pulmonary barotraumas
e. Pulmonary edema

The medulla oblongata

The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
a. The pontine respiratory group
b. The dorsal respiratory group
c. The ventral respiratory group
d. The medulla oblongata
e. The pons

Goblet cells

Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ______ of the respiratory tract
a. Squamus alveolar cells
b. Great alveolar cells
c. The pleurae
d. Ciliated cells
e. Goblet cells

Bicarbonate ions

The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ______ than in any other form
a. Carbaminohemoglobin
b. Carboxyhemoglobin
c. Bicarbonate ions
d. Dissolved CO2 gas
e. Bisphosphocarbonate

To aid in defecation and urination

Amoung its other purposes, the Valsalva Maneuver is used
a. To aid in defecation and urination
b. As part of the procedure for giving CPR to a person in respiratory arrest
c. To ventilate the lungs during eupnea
d. To expel more than the usual tidal volume from the lungs
e. To clear carbon monoxide from the body and replace it with oxygen

Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well

Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphogylcerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
a. A low BPG level causes acidosis of blood
b. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload CO2 very well
c. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well
d. Erythrocyte low in BPG do not load O2 very well
e. A decline in BPG level is accompanied by a decline in hemoglobin level


Your breathing rate is 2 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 ml; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is _______ mL/min
a. 2400
b. 3600
c. 4200
d. 5600
e. 6400


Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1200 mL. your vital capacity is ______ mL
a. 2400
b. 3000
c. 3800
d. 4700
e. 5800


The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as inspiratory capacity
a. True
b. False


Respiratory arrest is an irreversible condition
a. True
b. False


The pleurae and pleural fluid help prevent the spread of pulmonary infection to the pericardium
a. True
b. False


Breathing is controlled solely by the medulla oblongata and pons
a. True
b. False


The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by the pressure gradient of carbon dioxide
a. True
b. False


Gas transport is the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa
a. True
b. False


Carbon monoxide competes with oxygen for the same binding site
a. True
b. False


According to the Bohr effect, a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2
a. True
b. False


Erythrocytes do not carry out aerobic respiration; thus, they do not consume any of the oxygen they are transporting
a. True
b. False


Hemoglobin releases the same amount of oxygen to all the tissues regardless of variations in their metabolic rate
a. True
b. False

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