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Foreign Policy Chapter Terms.

William Seward

A leading Republican of the 1850s and 1860s of NY who served under both Abe Lincoln Andrew Johnson as their Secretary of State

Napoleon III

The nephew of the first napoleon who had taken advantage of US involvement in the Civil War by sending French Troops to occupy Mexico


The Spanish Nation neighbouring the US to the South.

Alaska Purchase (1867)

Seward convinced the Congress to purchase the territory of Alaska for $7.2 Million.

"New Imperialism"

The continuing concentration of US involvement in foreign affairs.

International Darwinism

Darwin's Concept of "Survival of the Fittest," but applied to competition between nations.

Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Current Crisis

An author who wrote that people of Anglo-Saxon descent were "the fittest to survive" and that Protestant Americans had a Christian duty to colonize other lands for the purpose of spreading Christianity and Western Civilization

Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History

A US Navy Captain who argued in this book that a strong navy was crucial to a country's ambitions of securing foreign markets and becoming a world power.

Pan-American Conference (1889)

The first meeting in 1889 between the United States and its Southern, Latin American neighbours

James Blaine

Benjamin Harrison's Secretary of State, from Maine...he played a principal role in extending communication between the US and Latin America.

Richard Olney

The Secretary of State under President Cleveland.

Venezuela Boundary Dispute

An issue between Venezuela and the neighbouring territory, the British colony of Guiana. Fixed when Olney and Cleveland convinced Britain to arbitrate.


The Caribbean area near to the US that was a principal target of American imperialism.


An intense form of nationalism calling for an aggressive form of foreign policy.

Valeriano Weyler

An autocratic General sent by Spain with 100,000 troops to Cuba to suppress the revolt occurring.

Yellow Journalism

The reporting of Crime, Disaster, and Scandal to promote War Fever, usually in the US.

Spanish-American War

The fight to end Spanish oppression in Cuba...The US joined the war on April 20 1898.

De Lome Letter

A letter from a Spanish Diplomat that was leaked to the press and printed on the front page of the New York Journal. The letter was highly critical of President McKinley.


A US battleship that exploded while anchored in Havana, Cuba.

Teller Amendment

An amendment that declared that the US had no intention of taking political control of Cuba and that, once was restored to the island, the Cuban people would control their own govt.


The place where the first shots of the Spanish American War were shot. Controlled by the Spanish since the 1500s, a US fleet was sent in by Teddy Roosevelt to capture the capital city, Manila.

George Dewey

The commander of the fleet sent to the Philippines by Theodore Roosevelt.

Theodore Roosevelt

McKinley's assistant secretary of the navy...

Rough Riders

A regiment of the volunteers led by Theodore Roosevelt that charged up the San Juan Hill in Cuba.

Hawaii; Liliuokalani

These islands became a territory of the US in 1900. This woman was the queen of Hawaii before the annexation.

Puerto Rico; Guam

Two Spanish Islands given to the US in the treaty of peace with Spain

Philippine Annexation

A treaty ratified on Feb. 6, 1899 guaranteed this. The anti-imperialists fell just two votes short of defeating this treaty.

Emilio Aguinaldo

The Filipino nationalist leader who had fought alongside US troops during the Spanish American War, after the annexation of the Philippines, he led bands of Guerrilla Fighters in a war against US control.

Anti-Imperialist League

A league led by William Jennings Bryan that rallied opposition to further acts of expansion in the Pacific.

Insular Cases

A series of Supreme Court Cases between 1901 and 1903 that resolved the issue of the constitution following the flag.

Platt Amendment (1901)

An amendment that required Cuba to agree 1. never to sign a treaty with a foreign power that impaired its independence. 2. never to build up an excessive public debt. 3. to permit the US to intervene in Cuba's affairs to preserve its independence and maintain law and order 4. to allow the US to maintain Naval bases in Cuba, including one at Guantanamo Bay.

John Hay

McKinley's Secretary of State.

Spheres of Influence

Established by Russia, Japan, GB, France, and Germany...allowed them to dominate trade and investment within their sphere and shut out competitors. (set up in China)

Open Door Policy

By which all nations would have equal trading rights in China.


Hatred and fear of foreigners.

Boxer Rebellion

In which a secret society of Chinese nationalists attacked foreign settlements and murdered dozens of Christian missionaries.

Big-Stick policy

A label for President Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy. "speak softly and carry a big stick."

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)

Under which the British agreed to abrogate the earlier treaty of 1850 which stated that any canal in Central America was to be under joint US-British control. This allowed the US to begin the construction of the Panama Canal.

Panama Canal

A canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Completed in 1914.

George Goethals

An army colonel who was the chief engineer of the Panama Canal Project.

William Gorgas

A doctor whose efforts eliminated the mosquitoes that spread the deadly Yellow Fever.

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's decision to have the US intervene in international affairs instead of Europeans, as this was a blatant violation of the Monroe Doctrine.

Santo Domingo

The Dominican Republic, A nation who was unable to pay its debts to Britain, and was put under Military control until the demands were met.

Russo-Japanese War

A war between Russia and Japan caused by imperialist rivalry. Japan was winning when Roosevelt proposed a meeting between representatives of both nations. Although they both agreed to the Treaty of Portsmouth, Japan blamed the US for not getting all that it wanted as a result of the war.

Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)

The treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese War.

Gentlemen's Agreement

Established in 1908, Roosevelt arranged this compromise by means of an informal understanding. In this, the Japanese govt secretly agreed to restrict the emigration of Japanese workers to the US in return for Roosevelt persuading CA to repeal its discriminatory laws.

Great White Fleet

The fleet that Roosevelt sent on an around the world cruise to demonstrate the US naval power to Japan and other nations.

Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)

An important executive agreement between the US and Japan established in 1908. 1) They agreed to mutual respect for each nation's Pacific possessions and 2) support for the Open Door policy in China.

Algeciras conference (1906)

A conference directed in part by Roosevelt that succeeded in setting a conflict between France and Germany over claims in Morocco.

William Howard Taft

Roosevelt's Successor...he adopted a foreign policy that was mildly expansionist but depended more on investors' dollars than on the navy's battleships. He didn't carry a big stick!!

Dollar Diplomacy

Taft's policy of trying to promote US trade by supporting American enterprises abroad.


A nation in which the US intervened in its financial affairs in 1911 and sent marines when a civil war broke out in 1912.

Henry Cabot Lodge

A republican senator from Massachusetts who was responsible for another action that alienated both Latin America and Japan.

Lodge Corollary

Passed by the senate in 1912, it stated that non-European powers would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.

Woodrow Wilson

The successor of Taft who opposed imperialism, dollar-diplomacy policies, and the big stick policy of his republican predecessors.

New Freedom

Wilson's campain headline...he called for this in government and promised a moral approach to foreign affairs.

Moral Diplomacy

Wilson's attempt to apply a high moral standard to foreign relations.

Jones Act (1916)

An act passed in 1916 that 1) granted full territorial status to that country (the philippines), 2) guaranteed a bill of rights and universal male suffrage to Filipino citizens, and 3) promised Philippine independence as soon as a stable govt was established.

Mexican Civil War

A war that severely tested Wilson's moral approach to foreign affairs.

Victoriano Huerta

The military dictator who had seized power in Mexico in 1913 by arranging to assassinate the democratically elected president.

Tampico Incident

In 1914, several American seamen were arrested when they went ashore at Tampico, but soon released. Huerta would not apologize for the incident.

ABC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) powers

South America's powers that thwarted a war between the US and Mexico by offering to mediate the dispute.

Pancho Villa

The leader of a band of revolutionaries that hoped to destabilize the govt of his opponent, Venustiano Carranza.

Venustiano Carranza

The successor to the dictator Victoriano Huerta...he led a more democratic regime.

Expeditionary Force

The push to pursue Villa into was in northern Mexico for months without being able to capture Villa.

John J. Pershing

The general assigned by Wilson to pursue Villa into Mexico.

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