25 terms

Soca 105 Exam 4

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Bands
Original human society, small kinship based, foraging (hunting/gathering), rely on natural resources for subsistence, nomadic, egalitarian (everyone equal)
Tribes
First emerged in the middle east, kinship based groups, food producing (horticulture/pastoralism), sedentary (settled in villages), egalitarian, generally a Village Head and Big Man as leaders, focus on domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep and goats
Chiefdoms
Small kinship based though they start taking in unrelated people, agriculture (peasants) and specialization, domesticated animals, ranked society, irrigation
States
Agriculture (peasants) and specialization, later industrial/postindustrial, social classes, central government, control specific territories, productive farming economies
Mesolithic
Middle stone age, ice age ending, climate getting warmer, broad spectrum foraging revolution, sedentism, food preservation
Neolithic
New stone age, food production: domestication of plants and animals (horticulture/pastoralism), sedentism, use of pottery
Sedentism
Transitioning process where a nomadic population is placed into more permanent settlements
Nomadic
Moving from place to place
Pastoralism
Domestication of animals for food
Pastoral nomadism
Members of pastoral society follow herd throughout the year
Transhumance
Part of group moves with herd, but most stay in home village
Caprine domestication
Domestication of goats
Horticulture
Domestication of plants, low labor cultivation
Mesopotamia
Ancient region of W. Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; now part of Iraq
Jericho
First town around 10,000 years ago, unplanned with round houses and 2,000 people
Bronze Age
Agriculture/specialization lead to smelting, metallurgy, writing, "Dawn of Civilization"
Hydraulic theory
Need to regulate hydraulic agricultural economies favored state formation (Wittfogel)
Economy
System of production, distribution and consumption of resources
Reciprocity
Exchange between social equals, normally related by kinship, marriage or close personal ties
Generalized reciprocity
Giving with no specific expectation of exchange
Balanced reciprocity
Exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household
Negative reciprocity
Dealing with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems; filled with distrust
Potlatching
Competitive festive event within regional exchange system among tribes of north Pacific coast of North America
Redistribution
Flow of goods into center, then back out (chiefdoms)
The market principle
Buying, selling and valuation based on supply and demand (states)