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anatomy exam 2

what are the functions of blood?
transportation of O2 and Co2
regulation of body temp, pH and fluid volume
protection/production of antibodies
what are the 3 factions of blood and their percentage?
1. erythrocytes 44%
2. buffy coat 1%
3. plasma 55%
what are erythrocytes characteristics?
RBC's (mature RBC's lack nuclei and other organelles)
small in size
biconcave shape
what is the red pigmented protein in erythrocytes?
hemoglobin (which reversibly transports O2 and Co2 in the blood)
what is erythropoiesis?
the process of erythrocyte production (about 3 million erythrocytes are produced per second)
what are characteristics of leukocytes?
they possess a nucleus and organelles
they are known as defenders
what are the two classes of leukocytes?
granuloctyes and argranulocytes
what are the three leukocytes-granulocytes?
neutrophils- bacteria
what are the two leukocytes- agranulocytes?
lymphoctyes-produce antibodies
monocytes-dead cells
what are platelets?
involved in the clotting of blood
produced by megakaryoctyes in the red bone marrow
what are Type A antibodies?
anti B antibodies
what are type B antibodies?
anti A antibodies
what are type AB antibodies?
neither anti A or anti B antibodies
what are type O antibodies?
both anti A and anti B antibodies
Which blood type is the universal donnor?
type O
which blood type is the universal recipent?
type AB
what are the two basic types of blood vessels?
arteries and veins
what are arteries?
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
what are veins?
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
the arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart are called what? and why?
great vessels; they have relatively large diameter
what are the two circulations in the cardiovascular system? and where are they located?
pulmonary ( right side of heart) and systemic (left side of heart)
what is pericardium?
the tough sac the heart is enclosed within
what are the three layers of the heart wall?
epicardium (visceral layer) , myocardium (cardiac muscle), and endocardium (internal surface of heart chambers and external surface of heart valves)
what are the four chambers of the heart?
right atrium
right ventricle
left atrium
left ventricle
what are the four valves of the heart?
tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary semilunar, and aortic semilunar
what are the three veins that drain into the right atrium?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
what are the three classes of blood vessels?
arteries, capillaries, and veins
what are the 3 types of arteries?
elastic, muscular and arterioles
what are the characteristics of elastic arteries?
largest of the arteries, near the heart, stretch under increased pressure by blood flow
what are the characteristics of muscular arteries?
medium diameter, thicker tunica media
what are the characteristics of arterioles?
smallest arteries, less than six cell layers of smooth muscle, causes vasoconstriction and vasodilation
what is the difference in vasoconstriction and vasodilation?
constriction: elevation of blood pressure
dilation: lowering of blood pressure
what are capillaries?
smallest of all blood vessels
what are veins?
blood vessels that drain capillaries and return blood to the heart. much lower pressure than in arteries
what are venules?
smalles veins
what is the function of a postcapillary venule?
to drain the capillary bed
what do valves in veins do?
causes venus blood flow to go in only one direction
which circuit of the cardiovascular system is responisble for sending blood to the kidneys, stomach, and pelvic regions?
systemic circulation
which circuit of the cardiovascular system is responsible for the lungs?
pulmonary circulation
Oxygenated blood is pumped out of where?
left ventricle into ascending aorta
blood is returned by way of?
inferior vena cava to the right atrium; from lower limbs, pelvis and perineum and abdominal structures
what three arteries are responsible for supplying the organs of the gastrointestinal tract?
celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesentric artery
what are the three branches off of the celiac trunk? and what do they supply?
1. left gastric (stomach and lower esophagus)
2. splenic artery (spleen and part of stomach)
3. common hepatic artery (liver, gall bladder, and portion of the stomach)
what is the main function of the respiratory system?
what is the upper respiratory tract comprised of?
nose and nasal cavities
paranasal sinuses
what is the lower respiratory tract comprised of?
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
what is the larynx?
aka the voice box, connects pharynx to trachea
what are the three major cartilages of the larynx?
thryoid, cricoid, and epiglottis
what is the largest cartilage?
what is the ring shaped cartilage?
what are characteristics of the epiglottis?
spoon-shaped, swallowing closes the opening to the larynx and prevents material from entering lower respiratory tract
the broncial tree is made up of what?
left and right primary bronchi, secondary bronchi and tertiary bronchi (off secondary bronchi)
what are bronchioles?
smooth muscle, involved in contraction and relaxation
which lung is smaller and why?
left, because the heart projects slightly to the left
what is pulmonary ventilation?
what are characteristics of the digestive system?
ingest food, transport, digest, absorb, and expel
what are the two categories of organs in the digestive system?
1. digestive organs (GI tract)
2. accessory digestive organs
what are the organs of the GI tract?
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon)
what are the accessory digestive organs?
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
what are the two types of movement involved in propulsion of food?
peristalsis: ripple-like wave of muscular contraction
segmentation: churning and mixing of material
what structuarl features are in the oral cavity?
cheeks, lips, palate, tongue, salivary glands, teeth
what is the lingual frenulum?
what attaches the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity
what are the functions of saliva?
moisten, chemical digestion, antibacterial action, dissolve material
what organ is shared by both the respiratory and digestive systems?
what are the two types of peritoneum?
parietal (lines insode of body wall)
visceral (within cavity)
what are the three arteries that supply the abdominal GI tract?
celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesentric artery
what are the four regions of the stomach?
caridac, fundus, body, pyloric
what is the function of the small intestine?
absorb most of the nutrients
what are the three specific segments of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
what are the structures of the large intestine?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anal canal
what are the accessory digestive organs?
liver, gall bladder, pancreas, biliary apparatus