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19 terms

Biology Vocab (3)

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Diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes (ex. egg, sperm)
Gametogenesis
the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis
Somatic
of the body
2N
abbreviation for diploid cell
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Spermatogenesis
the production of sperm cells
Oogenesis
the production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum
Meristematic tissue
Plant tissue found only in the tips of shoots and roots; responsible for plant growth. (divides)
Xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.
Phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
exocytosis
process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell
endocytosis
process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane
phagocytosis
the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
hypotonic solution
in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell; causes a cell to swell and possibly burst as water enters the cell
hypertonic solution
in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell; causes a cell to shrink as water leaves the cell
isotonic solution
a solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis