EOC American History Key Concepts
Terms in this set (372)
-the process in which a minority group adopts the beliefs, ways of life, attitudes, and culture of the dominant population
Chinese Exclusion Act
-enacted in 1882, this law prohibited the immigration of Chinese to the United States
-African-Americanswho migrated from the South to the West after the Civil War
a) name came from the biblical story of Moses leading Jews to the promise land
b) ________'s promise land was Kansas and Oklahoma
Battles with plains Indians
-the Sioux rebellion sparked a series of attacks on settlements as other plains indians saw their way of life slipping away
-the Sand Creek Massacre spawned another round of attacks
-indian tribes joined forces to attack settlements
-enacted in 1887, this act tried to "Americanize or assimilate Native Americans
Dispersal of the plains Indians
-Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868
-this said that the Indians would stay on the reservation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs would provide resources
-religious revival that was believed to banish white settlers and restore the buffalo to the plains
a) the government feared an uprising and arrested Sitting Bull
b) the _____ _____ War ended at Wounded Knee and was the final nail in the coffin for Native Americans
Boom & Bust Nature of Mining Towns
-the lure of silver and golf brought about many fortune seekers
-the towns had filthy living quarters
-some lasted till today, while others fell apart in months
-1862 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for five years
a) this aided to the push for western expansion
b) just as miners and ranchers headed west for a better life so did farmers
End of the open range
-resulted due to overgrazing, bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire
Transcontinental trade from the railroad
-the railroad ensured a production boom, as industry mined the vast resources of the middle and western continent for use in production
-farmer movements such as the Grange and Farmers Alliance
Patrons of husbandry/ The Grange
-a social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century
-a late 19th century political movement demanding that people have a greater voice in government and seeking to advance the interests of farmers and laborers
-based among poor, white cotton farmers in the south
-was also called the People's Party
-the use of both gold and silver as a basis for a national monetary system
-its advocates were in favor of an inflationary monetary policy using the "free coinage of silver" as opposed to the less inflationary gold standard
William Jennings Bryan
-he was a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party
Cross of Gold speech
-by William Jennings Bryan
-in the address, Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity
-a new method for making steel that was faster, more efficient, and greatly increased the rate of production
-energy that made available by the flow of electric charge though a conductor
-Alexander Graham Bell; increased communication
Expansion of railroads
-allowed businesses to ship goods cross country cheaper, faster, and more efficiently
-is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines
-is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods
-an entity such as a business, municipality, or organization, that involves more than one person but that has met the legal requirements to operate as a single person, so that it may enter into contracts and engage in transactions under its own identity
-created for purposes of government
-the acquisition of additional business activities that are at the same level of the value chain in similar or different industries
-internal or external expansion
-when a company expands into expands into areas at different points on the same production path
-this strategy can help companies reduce costs and improve efficiency by decreasing expenses and reducing turnaround time
-exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity
-An arrangement in which a number of businesses unite under one system, forming a monopoly
-the theory or system of government that upholds the autonomous character of the economic order, believing that government should intervene as little as possible in economic affairs
-A company establishes a monopoly when it gains exclusive control over the supply of a particular product, eliminating competition
-Several industrialists facilitated the growth of industry in America. These individuals, including Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, and Henry Ford, were responsible for building industries that employed many people and provided commodities needed for life in the U.S.
-A businessman who grew to dominate the steel industry
John D. Rockefeller
-A businessman who grew to dominate the oil industry. Established the nation's first trust
-A finance capitalist who grew to control several banks, insurance companies, and stock markets. He bought Carnegie's steel company for a price that made Carnegie the richest man in the world
Standard Oil Company
-Rockefeller's oil company and the nation's first trust
-_______ _______Company was a steel producing company created by Andrew Carnegie to manage business at his steel mills in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
-The "new immigrants" came during the period of intense industrial development known as the gilded age as well as the reaction to this growth during the progressive era
-The earliest waves of settlers to the Americas, up through the first half of the 19th century, constitute the era of "old" immigration
Push and Pull Factors of Immigration
-push factors drive migrants out of their countires of origin, pull factors are responsible for dictating where these travelers end up
-an island in San Francisco Bay
-from 1910-1940, the island processed hundreds of thousands of immigrants, the majority from China
-during WWII, Japanese and German POWs were held on the island, which was also used as a jumping-off point for American soldiers returning from the Pacific
-in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for millions of immigrants to the United States as the nation's busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892 until 1954
-the process by which a person or a group's language and, or culture come to resemble those of another group
-a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Settlement Houses (Hull House)
-house cofounded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr, located in the Near West of Chicago, Illinois, and was opened to the recently arrived European immigrants, named after its first owner
-in most English speaking areas, a substandard multi-family dwelling in the urban core, usually old and occupied by the poor
-a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts
Sherman Antitrust Act
-a landmark federal statue on the United States competition law passed by Congress in 1890, it prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anticompetitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of being in violation
Clayton Antitrust Act
-enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency
Federal Reserve Act
-an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (now commonly known as the U.S. dollar) and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender, act was signed into law by Woodrow Wilson
-not any single well defined concept, but various ideologies that seek to apply biological concepts associated with Darwinism or other evolutionary theories to sociology, economics and politics, often with the assumption that conflict or cooperation between groups in society leads to social progress as superior groups out-compete inferior ones
Knights of Labor
-was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1800s
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
-Craft union led by Samuel Gompers focused on the issues of wages, work hours, and working conditions, they often used strikes and boycotts and pressured for a "closed shop" workplace
Industrial Workers of the world
-The IWW promotes the concept of"One Big Union", contends that all workers should be united as a social class and that capitalism and wage labor should be abolished
Terence V. Powderly
-an Irish-American politician and labor union leader, best-known as head of the Knights of Labor
-Leader of the AFL
-An influential union leader who was the head of the American Railway Union and led the famed Pullman strike. He eventually ran for president several times as a socialist
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
-The first major care of nationwide labor unrest, it occurred in 1877 and involved the nation's railroads. President Hayes eventually sent in federal troops to put down the protest. It showed business owners that they could appeal to the government for help in dealing with striking workers
-This was a strike among steelworkers in 1892 at Carnegie's steel plant. It became violent when strikers and Pinkerton agents started shooting at one another. The strike ended when the public viewed the strikers as instigators of the violence
-This was the last nation-wide strike. It involved the railroad industry and was led by Eugene Debs. The strike ended when strikers disrupted the US mail, and the president sent in troops to enforce a federal injunction against the union. This strike established the precedence of factory owners appealing to the courts to end strikes
Haymarket Square Riot
-This violent incident occurred in Chicago's Haymarket Square in 1866 as a part of a national labor demonstration; during the rally, a bomb exploded and a riot broke out that resulted in several deaths, the incident turned public opinion against the unions as many began to identify strikes with anarchy and violence
-This is a practice in which children, some as young as five, would have to work rather than go to school in order for families to survive; it led to children both missing out on school and becoming trapped in poverty
By the early part of the 18th century much of the easily mined surface coal had been extracted
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
-occurred in New York City on March 25, 1911; was one of the deadliest industrial disasters on the history of the city of New York and resulted in the fourth highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history
-a multi-tendency democratic-socialist political party in the United States, formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party which had split form the main organization in 1899
-a leading independent news organization, featuring investigative and breaking news reporting on politics, the environment, human rights
-an American social and political reformer; worked against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays
-American teacher, author, and journalist; was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era
-Best known for her pioneering investigative reporting that led to the breakup of the Standard Oil Company's monopoly
-an American author who wrote close to one hundred books in many genres; achieve popularity in the first half of the twentieth century, acquiring particular fame for his classic muckraking novel, The Jungle (1906), it exposed conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry, causing a public uproar that contributed in part to the passage a few months later of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act
-Teddy Roosevelt was one American who believed a revolution was coming, he believed Wall Street financiers and powerful trust titans to be acting foolish
-A form of interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people who are following rules of etiquette. it is polite to give and take subjects thought go by people taking with each other for company.
-Municipal reference bureaus were set up to study the budgets and administrative structures of local governments to see what could be changed.
-the process by which people choose the candidates for public office rather than having them be chosen by party bosses.
-a process which allows for citizens to force the state legislation to vote on a particular issue.
-a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption go a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of direct democracy.
-A process accepted by many states during the progressive era in which special elections could be held to remove corrupt official from office before their time has expired.
Woman's Suffrage Movement
-achieved gradually, at state and local levels during the late 19th century and early 20th century culminating in 1920 with the passage of the 19th amendment to the US Constitution, which provided, "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
Carrie Chapman Catt
-An American women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution which gave the US women the right to vote in 1920.
-dedicated her life's work to women's rights, formed the National Women's Party with Lucy Burns, and was a key figure in the push for the 19th amendment
Meat Inspection Act
-The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (FMIA) in a United States Congress Act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that mean and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions.
Pure Food and Drug Act
-1906 was a key piece of progressive Era established the federal income tax
-this amendment established federal income tax.
-this amendment established the election of senators directly by the people rather than by state legislatures.
-this amendment prohibited the making, selling, or transportation of alcoholic beverages.
-it was later repealed
-this amendment gave women the right to vote in national elections
Founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
An African-Americans civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is to "ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination.
-its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people
W. E. B. Du Bois
-this man was the first black PhD from Harvard, an African American leader who disagreed with Booker T. Washington and felt that blacks must seek to achieve intellectually as well. He advocated legal, social, and political activity on the part of African Americans, and he criticized Washington for his acceptance of segregation.
-He started the Niagara Movement and was the key figure in the founding of the NAACP
-he was the youngest man to ever be elected president. He was perceived as siding with strikers rather than management during the Anthracite Coal Mine Strike 1902.
William Howard Taft
-served as Teddy Roosevelt's secretary of war and was elected president after Roosevelt
-He imposed a corporate income tax
-The terms "shirt sleeve diplomacy", "open door policy", and "dollar diplomacy" stimulate growth, trade and stability; he also served on the supreme court
-this man won the 1912 election and opposed both big business and big government. He supported Congress in passing the Federal Reserve Act.
-A third party formed by Progressive Republicans who supported Teddy Roosevelt for president in 1912. Its platform reminded many of the old Populist movement because they called for many reforms.
-Among these were better working conditions, more regulation of business, women's suffrage, and an end to child labor
Bull Moose Party
-a political party created by Theodore Roosevelt when he was denied the Republican's Party nomination for president in 1912.
Election of 1912
-the 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.
-extreme patriotism, especially in the form of aggressive or warlike foreign policy.
-the US wanted a strong military that would have the most powerful weapons. Being economically ahead also meant having a stronger military to secure the transportation of goods and to be ready to fight in disputes.tied to the ideas of Darwinism and Nationalism, we must compete with British and Germans
-an economic and social philosophy-supposedly based on the biologist Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection-holding that a system of unrestrained competing will ensure the survival of the fittest
-use of sensationalized and exaggerated reporting by newspapers or magazines to attract readers.
Spanish American War
-war fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. it lasted 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
-a communist state in the Caribbean on the island of Cuba
-the largest and southernmost island in the Marianas which is administered as a territory of the United States it was ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898
-a republic on the Philippine Islands; achieved independence from the United States in 1946.
-a self-governing commonwealth associated with the US occupying the island of Puerto Rico.
-ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by the US Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan. 1, 2000(746)
Great White Fleet
the name of the group of battleships hat Teddy Roosevelt sent around the world.
-objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900.
Open Door Policy
-a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
Roosevelt Corollary Big Stick Policy
-an extension of the Monroe Doctrine, announced by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, under which the United States claimed the right to protect its economic interests by means of military intervention in the affairs of Western Hemisphere nations.
-the U.S. policy of using the nation's economic power to exert influence over other countries.
-Moral Diplomacy is a form of Diplomacy proposed by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in his 1912 election. Moral Diplomacy is the system in which support is given only to countries whose moral beliefs are analogous to that of the nation.
-Term given to governments supported or created by the United States in Central America; believed to be either corrupt or subservient to U.S. interests.
-a 1900 rebellion in which members of a Chinese secret society sought to free their country from Western influence
-Filipinos were angry after not receiving their promised freedom. Waged guerrilla warfare. Led to a "race war". Put down in 1901 when Aguinaldo was captured by the U.S.
Mexican Revolution and Pancho Villa
-(1910-1920) Fought over a period of almost 10 years from 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
-every country started to arm themselves against any possible attack due to the threat of World War
-a. Allies-in World War I, the group of nations-originally consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy, and others that opposed the Central Powers.
-b. Central Powers-the group of nations-led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire-that opposed the Allies.
-the policy of extending a nation's authority over other countries by economic, political, or military means.
-industrialized countries were capable of sustaining long wars with mechanized weapons and materials
-a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
-this assassination of Austria's heir apparent was the main spark of WW1
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
-the use of submarines to sink without warning any ship (including neutral ships and unarmed passenger liners) found in an enemy's waters
Sinking of the Lusitania
-when German submarines sunk an unarmed British ship killing 139 Americans
-A promise Germany made to America after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning
-a message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered WW1
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
-Where people bought bonds so the government could get money now for war. The bonds increased in interest over time
Selective Service Act
-a law, enacted in 1917, the required men to register for military service
-a kind of biased communication designed to influence people's thoughts and actions
Committee on Public Information
-This was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization employed some 150,000 workers at home and overseas. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
Espionage Ac of 1917
-two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918 that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in World War I
War Industries Board
-an agency established during World War I to increase efficiency and discourage waste in war-related industries
Voluntary Policies of the Food Administration
-When the United States entered the war, President Wilson appointed Herbert Hoover to the post of United States Food Administrator (1917). Food had become a weapon in World War I and no country produced more food than America. Hoover succeeded in cutting consumption of foods needed overseas and avoided rationing at home, yet kept the Allies fed. America had to produce the food needed by the new large army America was building as well as for Allied armies and civilians.
Sedition Act of 1918
-The Sedition Act of 1918 was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds
Schenk v. United States
-limits needed to be placed on individual freedoms during the war because what can be said safely during peacetime can be dangerous during wartime
-airplanes, automatic weapons, poison gas, tanks
-military operations in which the opposing forces attack and counterattack from systems of fortified ditches rather than an open battlefield
-the overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life
General John (Blackjack) Pershing
-this man replaced Marshall Fock in commanding the US army and with him in the war ended in 9 months; nick named because he commanded black soldiers, he was AEF
American Expeditionary Force
-the U.S. forces, led by General John Pershing, who fought with the Allies in Europe during World War II
-Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (French premier), David Lloyd George (British prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian prime minister)
-the principles making up President Woodrow Wilson's plan for world peace following WWI
League of Nations
-an association of nations established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace
-the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government
-the compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage or injury it inflicted during a war
War Guilt Clause
-a provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for World War I
Return to Isolationism
-after World War I, this was President Harding and Coolidge's promise to not get involved. Became the foreign policy slogan,
-a flowering of African-American artistic creativity during the 1920s, centered in the Harlem community of New York City
-a term coined by F. Scott Fitzgerald for the postwar era. Jazz music blended African and European traditions to form a new kind of music
-an amendment to the Constitution of the United states adopted in 1920; prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages; repealed in 1932
-a person who smuggled alcoholic beverages into the United States during Prohibition
-(during Prohibition) an illicit liquor store or nightclub
-the work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs
-free-thinking young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the 1920s
-an amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1920; guarantees that no state can deny the right to vote on the basis of sex
Equal Rights Amendment
-a proposed and failed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would have prohibited any government discrimination on the basis of sex
First Red Scare
-widespread fear of communism in the U.S. during the 1920s after the revolution in Russia U.S. Attorney General Mitchel Palmer ordered raisin which federal marshals entered the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
-limitations on immigration that were passed by the U.S. government that established preferred immigration of those who were thought to be more "capable" and capable of success in the United States, while limited the immigration of those who were deemed "unnecessary"
-favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people
a 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
-Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Massachusetts. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities
-led by the NAACP starting in 1909, it lobbied Congress to pass legislation to stop the practice, keeping the issue in the news and helping to reduce the number that took place
Jim Crow laws
-laws enacted by Southern states and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities
Ku Klux Klan
-a secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in Southern States after the Civil War
-Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
Warren Harding and "Normalcy"
-republican; no new radical ideals. Keeping everything normal
-Became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business
-policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy that became popular in the 1920s
-the Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was a famous American legal case in 1925 in which a high school teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act
-mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it. In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product
-1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents
-refrigerator, vacuum cleaners, washing machines
-new weapon of World War I used for watching troop movements and bombing enemy targets
-Makes entertainment available to a wider selection of audience because it becomes cheaper
-emerged during the 1920s and contained stations such as church services, news, music and sports
Stock Market Crash
-the Stock Market Crash was flooded with investments (particularly those buying "on margin," or paying a fraction of the total price or a transaction and the broker lending the trader the rest), the Stock Market crashed after those who bought on margin were forced to either put up more money or sell their stock, choosing to sell. Thousands of people sold their stocks at once, and a financial panic ensued
-bad bank loans drained cash out of peoples' savings accounts; depositors later demanded their cash, which banks no longer, caused banks go bankrupt (fail)
-situation that occurs when people do not have jobs but are actively seeking employment. An effect of the Great Depression
-a law enacted in 1930, that established the highest protective tariff in U.S. History, worsening the depression in America and abroad
-the region, including Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, that was made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms during the 1930s
-a group of World War I veterans and their families who marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of a bonus they had been promised for military service
-a shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
-an agency established in 1932 to provide emergency financing to banks, life-insurance companies, railroads, and other large businesses
Civilian Conservation Corps
-an agency, established as part of the New Deal, that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood-control projects
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
-a law enacted in 1933 to raise crop prices by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted, thus lowering production
Tennessee Valley Authority
-a federal corporation established in 1933 to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
-an agency created in 1933 to insure individuals' bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failures
Securities and Exchange Commission
-an agency, created in 1934, that monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds
-an informal network of black officeholders in the federal government; led by Mary McLeod Bethune, William Hastie, and Robert Weaver, they pushed for economic and political opportunities for African Americans in the 1930s and 1940s
Works Progress Administration
-New Deal program that employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians as well
National Labor Relations Act/Wagner Act
-a law enacted in 1935 to aid in preventing unfair labor practices and to mediate disputes between workers and management
Social Security Act
-a law enacted in 1935 to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children
Supreme Court Packing Plan
-Plan in which FDR proposed 6 judges to be added to Supreme Court because justices were overworked and over 70 years of age; plan was heavily criticized; Result: Plan rejected -> Court began to accept New Deal Legislation; some Supreme Court Judges retired and were replaced by pro-New Deal judges
-Father Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 - October 27, 1979) was a controversial Roman Catholic priest.In 1927 , he offered the first Catholic services on radio. He often called attention to the poor, denounced big business, and criticized the United States' handling of widespread economic distress. He also was known for his anti-Jewish sentiments.
- ( 1893 - 1935), nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor
Limitations of New Deal
-women and African Americans didn't get as much pay or as many jobs as white males
-individualism in social and economic affairs; belief not only in personal liberty and self-reliance but also in free competition
FDR's "three R's"
-Relief, reform, and recovery
-purchase of goods and services at a level lower than that of their supply
Buying on Margin
-borrowing money from a broker to purchase stock. You can think of it as a loan from your brokerage
-investment in stocks, property, or other ventures in the hope of gain but with the risk of loss
-a political philosophy advocating a strong, centralized, nationalistic government led by a dictator
-the political philosophy - based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansionism - that Adolf Hitler put into practice in Germany from 1933-1945
-characteristic of a political party system in which government exercises complete control over its citizens' lives
Axis Power Aggression
-the group of nations - Germany, Italy, and Japan - that opposed the Allies in World War II
-1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand German's territory any further
-the granting of concessions to a hostile power in order to keep the peace
-an agreement in which two nations promise not to go to war with each other
-Isolationism refers to America's longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars. Isolationists held the view that America's perspective on the world was different from that of European societies and that American could advance the cause of freedom and democracy by means other than war
-a series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent U.S. arms sales and loans to nations at war
"Four Freedoms" speech
-A speech that proposed lending money to Britain for the purchase of US war materials and justified the policy because it was a defense of "four freedoms." Addressed to the Congress on January 6, 1941
- passed in 1941, that allowed the United States to ship arms and other supplies, without immediate payment, to nations fighting the Axis powers
-the bombing on this port sparked U.S. involvement in World War II
Office of War Mobilization
-federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during WWII
Office of Price Administration
-an agency established by Congress to control inflation during World War II
-a government's spending of more money than it recieves in revenue
-a kind of biased communication designed to influence people's thoughts and actions
-a restriction of people's rights to buy unlimited amounts of particular foods and other goods, often implemented during wartime to ensure adequate supplies for the military
-Americans were encouraged to grow vegetables in backyard gardens to support the war effort
War Bond Drives
-Citizens purchased these certificates to support the war and turned them in for a refund after the war
Rosie the Riveter
-A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Double V Campaign
-The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."
Executive Order 8802
-In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
Congress of Racial Equality
-an interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities
-America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
-All black unit of fighter pilots trained in Tuskegee Alabama. They won many awards for bravery and never lost a single pilot.
-Idians who transmitted messages in their native languages; languages which the Germans and Japanese could not understand.
1943 Repeal of Chinese Exclusion Act
-This allowed Chinese to immigrate for the first time since Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
Zoot-Suit Riots of 1943
-A series of riots in 1943 during World War II that exploded in Los Angeles, California, between white sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable the by the zoot suits they favored; the effect of the infamous Sleepy Lagoon murder which involved the death of a young Lation man in a barrio near Los Angeles; triggered other similar attacks in other places.
-The confinement or a restriction in movement during World War II, confining Japanese-Americans to reservations guarded by the military.
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case that supported funding for the relocation of Japanese Americans. Iw was not until 1988 that Congress apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor
Battle of the Atlantic
-Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the U.S. to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war. 1939-1945
Battle of Stalingrad
-A 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter; turning point of war in Eastern Europe.
North Africa Campaign
-Attempt to get Germans out of North Africa; Patton vs. Rommell; pushed Germans out of Tunisia back up into Italy. Known as Operation Torch.
-A name given to June 6, 1944: the day on which the Allies launched an invasion of the European mainland during World War II.
Battle of Midway
-A World War II battle that took place in early June 1942. The Allies decimated the Japanese fleet at Midway, an island lying northwest of Hawaii. The Allies then began to move closer to Japan.
Battle of Okinawa
-Allied victory over Japan on an island 350 miles from mainland Japan; March-June 1945.
-The American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
-involving or engaging in the deliberate crashing of a bomb-filled airplane into a military target
-the U.S. program to develop an atomic bomb for use in World War II
The Big Three of WWII
-Churchill, Roosvelet and Stalin; leaders who met between 1943 and 1945 to coordinate attacks on Germany and Japan, and later to discuss plans for postwar Europe and settlement of Germany. After the war, their armies occupied Germany, each with a separate zone, although governed as a single economic unit.
-a 1941 declaration of principles in which the United States and Great Britain set forth their goals in opposing the Axis powers
-July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power.
-First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the Space Race.
The Second Red Scare
-Post-World War II Red Scare focused on the fear of communists in U.S. government positions; peaked during the Korean War and declined soon thereafter, when the U.S. senate censured Joseph McCarthy, who had been a major instigator of the hysteria.
Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
-Also called the Labor Management Relations Act. It was Congress' response to the abuse of power. It outlawed closed shops; prohibited unfair labor practices, and forced unions to bargain in good faith.
-President Harry S. Truman's economic program-an extension of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal- which included measures to increase the minimum wage, to extend social security coverage, and to provide housing for low-income families.
-the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being communists in the early 1950's.
Military Industrial Complex
-Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned America against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive congressional spending.
Bay of Pigs
-In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
-An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President JohnF. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
-A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Gulf of Tonkin
-Authority granted by congress to President Johnson in 1964 to approve and support in advance .The determination of the president as commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attacks against the U.S.
-a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Limited Test Ban Treaty
-Signed by JFK and Khrushchev to prohibit testing of nuclear weapons
-political theory that is one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. LBJ used this to justify increasing US involvement in Vietnam.
My Lai Massacre
-1968 , in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
-President Richard Nixon's strategy for ending U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, involved a gradual withdrawal of American troops and allowing the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves.
Bombing of Cambodia
-Nixon said there were Vietcong and Vietminh troops in Cambodia, so we bombed the place since it was near South Vietnam, led to student strikes.
Wars Powers Act
-Congress passed to establish limits on Executive power; required the president to inform congress of any commitment of troops abroad.
-1968 attack by Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces throughout South Vietnam, eventually pushed back by US forces, but resulted in widespread anger/disillusion at home.
-Founded in 1909, the NAACP is the nation's oldest and largest civil rights organization. From the ballot box to the classroom, the thousands of dedicated workers, organizers, leaders and members who make up the NAACP continue to fight for social justice for all Americans.
Brown vs. Board of Education
-a 1954case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" education for black and white students was unconstitutional
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
-An organization formed in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means.
Little Rock Nine
-Incident in which nine African-American students were prevented from attending Little Rock Central High in 1957 during the Civil Rights Movement.
-African American protestors sat down at segregated lunch counters and refused to leave until served
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
-an organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in the civil rights movement.
Integration-University of Mississippi
-James Meredith was denied entry by the school , a decision supported by Governor Ross Barnett. President JFK thought southern governors were testing his authority and sent federal troops to escort Meredith onto the campus. Riots ensued and a few people were killed. Meredith graduated from the school.
-An American civil rights movement figure, a writer, and a political adviser
1963 March on Washington
-Many people met at the Lincoln memorial in support for bill on civil rights. This is where Martin Luther King Jr. made his famous "I Have a Dream" speech
-abolition of poll taxes
-a 1964 project to register African-American voters in Mississippi
Civil Rights Act on 1964
-a law that banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most workplaces
-"Bloody Sunday" -Three marches for voting rights, police beat marchers and used tear gas against them; violence was shown on TV
Voting Rights Act of 1965
-a law that made it easier for African-Americans to register to vote by eliminating discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the local level
-a slogan used by Stokely Carmichael in the 1960's that encouraged African-American pride and political and social leadership
Black Panther Party
-a militant African-American political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto
Harlem Race Riots
-Migration of African Americans to northern cities increased racial tensions, leading to violence in many cities. Two famous race riots occurred in Harlem (N.Y.) and Watts (Calif.)
Watts Race Riots
-Migration of African Americans to northern cities increase racial tensions, which led to violence in many cities. Two famous race riots occurred in Harlem (N.Y.) and Watts (Calif.)
De Jure Segragation
-racial segregation established by law
De Facto Segragation
-racial separation establish by practice and custom, not by law
-the concept that desegregated busing would lead to desegregated school. Forced busing would force integration within the schools.
-a policy that seeks to correct the effects of past discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged
-Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
-An African American Civil Rights' Activist who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assassinated in 1968 in Tennessee, Nobel Peace Prize for nonviolent leadership. youngest man in history to receive award, civil rights activist who delivered the famous "I Have a Dream" speech and also won the Nobel Peace prize
Letter From Birmingham Jail
-A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
-Black Muslim leader who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites, but later changed his views. He was assassinated in 1965.
-United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
-In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin Luther King led a boycott of city buses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
-Nonviolent resistance is the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, and other methods, without using violence
-the refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of protest
Woolworth Lunch Counter Sit-ins
-On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, an politely asked for service. Their request was refused. when asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their passive and peaceful sit-down demand helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South
-Series of rebellions started in 2010 to overthrow several oppressions in the Middle East by the government; revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world.
Weapons of mass destruction
-Any agent designed to bring about mass death and/or massive damage to property and infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports); also known as a weapon of mass casualty (WMC)
-A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communists armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communists armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
-A 7,000 page document-leaked to the press in 1971 by the former Defense Department worker Daniel Ellsberg-revealing that the U.S. government had not been honest about its intentions in the Vietnam War
-A scandal arising from the Nixon administration's attempt to cover up its involvement in the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex
-An area in Niagara Falls, NY where seepage from toxic wastes contaminated local soil and water. In 1968, President Carter relocated almost all residents of the area. It gave impetus for the 1980 Superfund legislation.
Iran Contra Affair
-President Reagan authorized the off-the-books sale of stolen weapons from the Pentagon to Iran in order to fund the Nicaraguan Contras; Congress had forbidden him to use government funds to support the Contras; helped keep Iraq from winning the Iraq-Iran War (did not want a Middle Eastern superpower); very illegal (Iran was considered a terrorist state) and almost cause Reagan to be impeached.
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy
-Don't ask, don't tell (DADT) is the common term for the policy restricting the United States military from efforts to discover or reveal closeted gay, lesbian, and bisexual service members or applicants, while barring those who are openly gay, lesbian, or bisexual from military service.
Presidential election of 2008
-R-John McCain and VP Sarah Palin vs. D-
Barack Obama and VP Joe Biden (
winner - first African American president)
-The sum total of outstanding (not yet paid off) US securities issues to cover past deficits
Engel v. Vitale
-The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren.
Gideon v. Wainwright
-The 1963 Supreme Court decision holding that anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer. "You have a right to a lawyer. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed to you."
Escobedo v. Illinois
-1964- Ruled that a defendant must have access to a lawyer before questioning by police
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan
-1964- A public official or public figure suing a publisher for libel must prove that the publisher published the libelous story knowing it was false
Reynolds v. Sims
-State legislative districts not based on one-man-one-vote formula violated 14th amendment
Griswold v. Connecticut
-Married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment
Miranda v. Arizona
-Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police. Miranda rights
Roe v. Wade
-Legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Oklahoma City bombing
-Bombing of Murrah Federal Building. The blast, set off by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, killed 168 people, including 19 children in the building's day-care center.
USS Cole bombing
-A suicide attack against the United States Navy guided-missile destroyer USS Cole on 12 October 2000, while it was harbored and being refueled in the Yemen port of Aden. It was the deadliest attack from a U.S. Naval vessel since 1987. The terrorist organization al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack.
September 11, 2011
-Four planes used as missiles; took down the symbol of US financial power, the World Trade Center Towers; the deadliest attack on US soil; it leads to far reaching changes in American life
-Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
-A group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
Osama bin Laden
-Founder of al-Qaeda, the terrorist group responsible for the attacks of Sept. 11, 2011, and others
Dept. of Homeland Security
-US federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism
Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
-TSA put in place directly after 9/11 attacks to protect another national terrorist attack on the plane. TSA is a part of the Department of Homeland Security.
-This controversial 2001 law allows anti-terrorism authorities to monitor e-mail and Internet traffic in order to prevent terrorist attacks. The government argues that cyberspace is public domain and that no warrants should be needed to access information.
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
-US Military base in Cuba that contains mostly suspected terrorists
-Political action for religion justified by decreased presence of religion in society; Pat Robertson's Christian Coalition to expand national influence.
1988 Bush Campaign
-"Read my lips: No New taxes."
Contract with America 1994
-Republican plan headed by Newt Gingrich that focused on scaling back the government, balancing the budget, and cutting taxes.
-After Clinton confessed before a jury that he and Lewinsky had an improper relationship, impeachment became an issue, especially in the congressional elections. The House narrowly approved 2 counts of impeachment; lying to the grand jury and obstructing justice. The matter moved to the Senate where a trial continued for weeks without generating any public support. It ended with a decisive acquittal of the president.
Bush tax cuts of 2001 and 2003
-During his first year in office, George W Bush persuaded congress to enact the largest tax cut in American History.
Presidential Election of 2000
-Between Republican candidate George W. Bush, the incumbent governor of Texas and son of former president George H.W. Bush, and Democratic candidate Al Gore, the incumbent VP. Bush won.
-Advances in medicine in the 1990's due to a combination of therapies, public health officials advocating abstinence and "safer sex" practices.
Human Genome Project
-An international collaboration to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
-The study of cancer, called oncology, involves anatomy, physiology, chemistry, epidemiology, and other related fields. It's one of the most rapidly evolving areas of modern medicine. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because the out-of-control growth of abnormal cells.
Stem Cell Research
-A stem cell is a generic cell that can make exact copies of itself indefinitely. Stem cells can be saved and used later to make specialized cells, when needed. In August 2001, President George W. Bush approved limited federal funding for stem cell research.
Genetically modified food
-are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA using methods of genetic engineering.
-A general-purpose computer, whose size, capabilities and original sale price makes it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operate directly by an end-user with no intervening operator.
-A global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide.
-A mobile phone with more advanced capabilities and connectivity than basic feature phones.
-The relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low-income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries.
-The interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks.
-Palestinian Liberation Organization: Formed in 1964 to create a homeland for Palestinians in Israel
-Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; An economic association of oil-producing nations that is able to set oil prices.
-The conflicts between the Arabs (specifically the Palestinians) and the Israelis; includes the Suez War, Six Day War, Yom Kippur War.
Oil Embargo of 1973
-Arab oil-producing nations halted the flow of oil to nations that supported Israel. Severely threatened European and world economy, so dependent on Middle East Oil.
Camp David Accords
-Agreements between Israel and Egypt, reached negotiations at Camp David in 1978.
Oil Crisis of 1979
-Iranian Revolution, Shah was overthrown by the Ayatollah so oil was restricted.
Iran Hostage Crisis
-In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981 , the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Persian Gulf War
-War fought between a coalition led by the U.S. and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders.
Afghanistan Operation Enduring Freedom 2001
-was launched in October 2001 Against Afghanistan, because it was harboring Osama Bin Laden.
War in Iraq
-Also known as war on terror, Began in 2003 Saddam Hussein was said to have Weapons of Mass Destruction; none were found.
Axis of Evil
-A group of nations accused by the Bush administration of sponsoring terrorism and threatening to develop weapons of mass destruction. Iran, Iraq, North Korea.
-The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements son led to the onset of the Cold War.
-First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war.
-FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War.
-The systematic murder or genocide of Jews and other groups in Europe by the Nazis before and during World War II.
-The court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
-Served as a military leader and president from 1952 to 1960. He commanded Allied forced in Europe during WWII. He led the British-American invasions of North Africa, defeating Rommel's Africa Korps in 1943. He commanded Allied forces on D-Day. He ran for president as a republican in 1952 and served two terms. He negotiated an end to the Korean War. He favored gradual domestic change. He ordered troops in Little Rock, Arkansas to keep peace when the high school racially integrated and signed the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960.
-During the Korean War, he was commander of the Allied Forces in the South Pacific during WWII and of UN forces in Korea. He lead the American, British, and South Korean forces. MacArthur fought up until the Yalu River by the Chinese border. Truman told him to only use Korean forces in case China got involved. However, MacArthur did not follow orders and sent US, British, and South Korean forces to fight. The Chinese responded heavily and the troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. Truman was extremely upset and dismissed MacArthur. Some believe that MacArthur was the reason that the US failed to "liberate" North Korea. Also MacArthur , while back in the states, was publicly dismissing Truman's ideas.
Adm. Chester Nimitz
-Admiral in the Battle of Midway, he commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages- led to his victory over Japan.
Harry S. Truman
-33rd president of the United States. He assumed the presidency at the death of FDR in 1945 and served until 1953. Under his leadership, the United States saw the end of the Second World War with the dropping of the two atomic bombs on Japan and also the establishment of the Truman Doctrine for foreign policy, which seeks to limit the spread of communism.
-an international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development.
-the blocking of another nation's attempts to spread its influence, especially the efforts of the United States to block the spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
-The policy of making the military power of the US and its allies so strong that no enemy would attack for fear of retalliation
-The idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
-the art or practice of pursuing a dangerous policy to the limits of safety before stopping, typically in politics
"Iron Curtain" Speech
-a phrase used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe from countries in the Western Hemisphere
-a U.S. policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947 of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
-the program, proposed by Secretary of State Gorge Marshall in 1947, under which the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after World War II
-a 327-day operation in which U.S. and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the United States, and Canada
-a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites
-a conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950 to 1053 in which the U.S. along with other UN countries fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans