### The propositional calculus reveals validity when this depends on propositional structure alone. (T/F)

True.

### What do upper-case letters represent in the predicate calculus?

They represent property-expressions or predicates.

### How do we say that m has property F? (93)

We juxtapose the symbols 'F' and 'm' in that order, we write:

Fm

### What do we obtain from "all robins are migrants" or "every robin is a migrant"? (94)

We obtain everything with the property of being a robin has the property of being a migrant.

It can be written as:

Everything with F has G.

### How do we write 'nothing with F has G'? (95)

(x)(Fx -> -Gx)

For any x, if x has the property of F, then it does not have the property of G.

### The device of universal quantifier enables us to render into logical notation many sentences that contain what such words? (95)

'All', 'every', 'any', 'everything', 'no', 'none', and/or 'nothing'.

### If F means felon and G means German, how do we read: (3x)(Fx & Gx)? (97)

There exists some object that is both a felon and a German.

### How can one write 'something with F has not G', such as 'some Frenchmen are not generous'? (97)

(3x)(Fx & -Gx)

### How might we summarize the task of translation into the quantifier-notation? (97)

1) Render into a sentence about properties, and employ predicate-letters for these properties.

2) Introduce variables

3) Introduce propositional calculus connectives and quantifiers.

### A predicate-letter followed by one name expresses a ___________. A predicate-letter followed by two names expresses a ___________. (98)

Property, Relation

### If we give 'Pmn' the interpretation 'm is a parent of n', how can we express 'Prince Charles has a parent', where n is Prince Charles? (98)

(3x)Pxn

This translates to: "There exists an 'x', that is a parent of Prince Charles."

(I'm a bit confused as to why the book does not use 'm', but rather 'x'.)

### If we give 'Pmn' the interpretation of 'm is a parent of n', and Prince Philip is represented by m, how can we write 'Prince Philip has a child'? (99)

(3x)(Pmx)

This translates to: "There exists an 'x' of which Prince Philip is a parent."

### If Pmn reads as 'm is a parent of n', what is the difference in reading (3x)Pnx in contrast with (3x)Pxn if 'n' represents Prince Charles? (99)

The first reads: there exists an 'x' of which Prince Charles is a parent.

The second reads: there exists an 'x' of which Prince Charles is a son, or there exists an 'x' of which 'x' is a parent of Prince Charles.